16.11) Jujutsu Intro: Old, practical, fighting art. A parent to Judo, Aikido, and Hapkido. Origin: Japan History: The begining of Ju-jutsu can be found in the turbulent period of Japanese history between the 8th and 16th Century. During this time, there was almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical weaponed systems were developed and constantly refined on the battle field. Close fighting techniques were developed as part of these systems to be use in conjunction with weapons against armoured, armed apponents. It was from these techniques that Ju-jutsu arose. The first publicly recognised Ju-jutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo-stick and dagger as well as unarmed techniques. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period of Japanese history (1603-1868), during which waring ceased to be a dominant feature of Japanese life. In the beginning of this period there was a general shift from weaponed forms of fighting to weaponless styles. These weaponless styles were developed from the grappling techniques of the weaponed styles and were collectively known as ju-jutsu. During the height of the Edo period, there were more than 700 systems of jujutsu. The end of the Edo was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil war that moved power from the Shogun back to the Emperor. A large proportion of the Samurai class supported the Shogun during the war. Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things related to the Samurai fell into disrepute. An Imperial edict was decreed, declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative martial arts. During the period of the Imperial edict, Ju-jutsu was almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art "under-ground", or moved to other countries, allowing the style to continue. By the mid twenty century, the ban on ju-jutsu in Japan had lifted, allowing the free practicing of the art. Description: The style encompasses throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a strong emphasis on throws, locks, and defensive techniques. It is also characterized by in-fighting and close work. It is a circular, hard/soft, external style. Training: Practical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and mock combat. Sub-Styles: There are many, each associated with a different "school" (Ryu). Here is a partial list: Daito Ryu, Danzan Ryu, Shidare Yanagi Ryu, Hokuto Ryu, Hontai Yoshin Ryu, Sosuishi Ryu, Kito Ryu, Kyushin Ryu. A more modern addition to this list is "Gracie Jujutsu", so named because of its development by the Gracie family of Brazil. Gracie Jujutsu (or GJJ as it has come to be known on rec.martial-arts) has a heavy emphasis on grappling/groundfighting. The Gracies have come into public promenence over the past year or two through a series of "no rules" martial arts contests known as the Ultimate Fighting Championships (UFC), some of which have been won by Royce (pronounced "Hoyce" in the Portugese language) Gracie.