Internet Resource Directory, Part 4: Educational Telecomputing Application/Infusion Ideas version 2: August 5, 1993 The information in this file is the result of Internet "prospecting" and teamwork by 24 eastern Nebraska teachers and 22 teachers and trainers from Texas who were enrolled in graduate Internet-based telecomputing courses during the Spring 1992 & 1993 semesters at the University of Nebraska at Omaha and the University of Texas at Austin. Much of their work for the course entailed exploring different Internet resource sites, then writing, fieldtesting, and revising friendly documentation describing online resources that they felt to be of value to teachers, trainers, and their students. Below please find ideas for use of telecomputing tools in education and training. Please forgive any grammatical errors that you find, understanding that some of the authors who contributed entries to this document are not native English speakers. Also, please remember that Internet sites can change daily, so although the entries that you see below were correct and up-to-date when they were created and tested, they may not be so when you read them. **This is NOT meant to be an exhaustive list of all of the sites of use to educators**. Rather, it is a beginning of what we hope will be an ongoing collaborative effort among telecomputing educators on a larger scale. We invite you to use this, share it with other teachers, amend it, append to it, and update it. We hope that the information that it contains will be useful to you. Judi Harris firstname.lastname@example.org & the students of EDC 385G: "Internet-Based Telecomputing" University of Texas at Austin (Spring 1993) & the students of TED 8000: "Computer-Mediated Communications for Educators" University of Nebraska at Omaha (Spring 1992) *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*- ARE THERE LEGOS ON MARS ? Lego T.C. Logo and Telecomputing Team up for Classroom Excitement. by Denny Hanley Students learn Science best when they are actively engaged doing "real" Science. Using Lego T.C. Logo and telecommunications with young scientists in your classroom can provide "real" excitement to solve "real" problems related to one of NASA's most exciting projects; "The Mars Mission." The Challenger Space Shuttle tragedy led the American people and NASA to re-examine the risks of manned space exploration. A new emphasis on unmanned probes, satellites, data collecting devices, and surface rovers emerged. It is not surprising that research and development in these areas has increased dramatically with promising results. Although humans in space will be necessary, under certain circumstances we can still "boldly go where no one really needs to." The JPL, (jet propulsion laboratory) has been working on an exciting project for the Mars mission. Their objective is to construct a "Mars Rover" vehicle that will enable scientists to explore, collect samples, survey and map the surface of Mars by remote control from the Earth. The vehicle is called "Robby" The objective of this lesson is exactly the same as the scientists at JPL with one exception; the vehicles will be constructed using Lego T.C. Logo kits. For this project you will need : 1) A telecomputing connection with access to the Internet. 2) The Lego T.C. Logo program. 3) Plenty of imagination, (student provided). Step 1: Research The current research and possibilities of the future in space can be explored in a very dynamic and exciting way right in your classroom using an array of resources on the Internet. The type of site and their addresses are listed below. In addition, Telnet sites are briefly described as to their relationship to the project. FTP sites containing files specifically supporting the research phase of this project are discussed in greater detail. Telnet Sites 1) NASA Spacelink Address: Spacelink.MSFC.NASA.GOV or: 22.214.171.124 This is an interactive site in which students are able to research the current status of every NASA project, including the Mars mission. 2) SpaceMet Address: SpaceMet.PHAST.UMASS.EDU or: 126.96.36.199 This is an interactive site with a wide variety of information on space exploration and space history. The information on the lunar rovers of the Apollo missions will be applicable to this project. 3) Lunar Planetary Institute Address: LPI.JSC.NASA.GOV or: 188.8.131.52 This site has general information on astronomy and specific information on planets. Read information on Mars. FTP Sites 1) NASA Archives Address: ftp AMES.ARC.NASA.GOV or: 184.108.40.206 This FTP site has many documents that you can download on space and related topics. Articles on JPL's research on "Robby" can be located using this file sequence; SPACE/MARS.ROVER/mr10.26.90. Download all files beginning with "mr", which stands for Mars rover. 2) Washington University Address: ftp WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU This ftp site has a wonderful collect of Gif graphics that can be downloaded. Detailed NASA photos of Mars taken by Viking 1 from a distance and on the surface of Mars are available. Additionally, there are photos of lunar rovers on the moon and surface landers on Mars. The directory sequence for each is listed below. 1) Mars: Gif / astronomy / L / lander2 2) Lunar Rover on the Moon: Gif / astronomy / L / lunarrover 3) Lander on Mars: Gif / astronomy / M / mars These files and telnet research will be very helpful and exciting for your students to get an idea of the task and the objectives facing scientists in their endeavor. It will also set the stage for this project. Step 2: Brainstorming It is important that students get a clear understanding of the problems facing them and other scientists in trying to put a "human presence" on the planet Mars. Students will need to brainstorm on the human qualities that can manifest themselves in machine form. Such as: mobility, sight, sound, communication, grasping and retrieving objects, and the ability to act, react, and interact with the environment. The students should not be concerned with the limitations of the Lego/Logo equipment at this point. The important thing is to let the ideas flow. The students will need to make value judgements as to which attributes would be essential to a Mars Rover. Those that are deemed necessary would be kept while the others would be discarded. After finalizing the list of attributes, the students are ready to enter the construction and testing phase of the project. Step 3: Construction and Testing As the students begin to experiment with different designs that will meet the necessary attributes they felt were important, they will also be constantly testing their ideas. Some possible areas that could be tested and measured are: 1) Maneuverability - forward, backward, turn. 2) Speed - m/sec 3) Strength - (Incline test) What is the greatest angle the Rover can climb a 1 m incline. 4) Durability - (Cliff test) What is the highest cliff, (in cm) that the Rover can drive off while remaining intact and mobile. 5) Special Features - Ability to measure distance in cm or m. Ability to "feel" objects and react. 6) Programming - The extent and quality to which categories 1-5 are controlled by the computer. Of course these are only a few possible ideas. Your students will supply variations of their own that only they as "real" scientists would think of. Step 4: Sharing the Data Students need to share their test results and descriptions of their Rovers with their peers within the class, and possibly with colleagues from another class for comparison. Using Electronic mail they could quickly share testing results and basic designs. They could also be encouraged to suggest improvements to each other and offer programming advice. They might even exchange programming codes. The results of the entire project could be electronically mailed to JPL scientists for their examination and comments. They would be interested, supportive, and grateful for the student efforts. Step 5: GO TO MARS If the proof is in the pudding then there will have to be a "Mars Mission" in your classroom. Students would build a Mars landscape and operate their vehicles without being able to actually see them. After all isn't that what "real" scientists do? THE EARTH DAY TREASURE HUNT: UTILIZING ONLINE RESOURCES AS RESEARCH TOOLS by Kim Burry I have never seen my students as motivated, excited, and on task as they were when they performed the research needed to solve the Earth Day Treasure Hunt (Douglas,C., & Levin,S., 1992) on April 22, 1992. The Earth Day Treasure Hunt is a networking project that involves students in history, math, map reading, geography and writing. Participating classrooms were asked to submit clues by electronic mail describing a geographical place. All clues from across the country were compiled and sent back to participating teams prior to Earth Day. Students were asked to conduct the hunt on Earth Day if possible. My kids had so much fun compiling clues for their geographical place and sending them on to the treasure hunt headquarters that I knew that the actual day of the hunt would be especially motivating and so I decided to plan for it to be a special day. I met with my building principal and made arrangements to work with my students for a four hour block of time. (I work with G/T kids in a pull-out situation. Students from grades 4-6 signed up to write clues and work on the hunt.) In preparation for the day, I collected maps, globes, and a variety of reference materials and familiarized my students with the Geographic Name Server and the Cleveland FreeNet. (My students were familiar with the Geographic Name Server because they had utilized it in their clue writing.) I accessed the Geographic Name Server for my students (martini.eecs.umich.edu 3000) and they were able to type in U.S. cities and states as well as some mountains, rivers, lakes, and national parks. This proved to be very valuable to my students particularly as a checking device. Many of the clues submitted contained latitudinal and longitudinal clues. My students were able to type in their chosen place and check this information relating to elevation, time zones, telephone area codes, postal zip codes and population. I also switched back and forth and had my students utilize the services from the Cleveland FreeNet (telnet 220.127.116.11). At the main menu, we chose the Library section, proceeded on to the Electronic Bookshelf, then chose #5, Read the World Factbook. This section contains information on Nations, Oceans and the World. My students utilized this section when searching for answers to clues in countries other than the U.S. The atmosphere in my classroom on Earth Day, 1992, was one of excitement. I must admit that I was a bit apprehensive, particularly with the way the kids would handle the use of the on-line resources. I was afraid of the congestion I might have with students wanting to use the computer resources above all other sources. However, my students utilized every source and took turns using the computer. (Which I might add was extremely popular.) We had a visit from our local newspaper when we were in the heighth of our clue searching. The kids were so excited that they couldn't stop giving him information for his article. Needless to say, an article and a picture of some of my students appeared in the next "Gretna Guide." My students have already asked if we could do this again next year. Of course, the answer was "yes." Seeing students have so much fun and learning at the same time, how could you refuse? References Douglas,C.,& Levin,S.(1992). The Earth Day Treasure Hunt. A project designed at the University of Illinois Department of Curriculum and Instruction. "Small World" Telecomputing Infusion Idea: TELECOMMUNICATIONS TO AID FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISTION by Jane Couture and Sharon South How often have you, as a teacher, heard "Why do I need to learn this?" In order for students to see the relevancy of a course of instruction, they need to see some immediate use or practical applications of the subject. Learning is easier, more enjoyable and successful if the learners can directly relate information to their lives. Foreign language is one of those subjects that is difficult to persuade students to take because they cannot foresee using it in the immediate future. Transportation and technology seems to have shrunk the world. Ours is truely a global community. People travel from continent to continent as easily as they do from state to state. Even though they may witness the Berlin Wall coming down or watch the Olympics from Albertville, France and Barcelona, Spain live on television via satellite, it is still difficult for students to see themselves as part of this picture. We want to find a way for students to speak and write to people throughout the world without leaving their classroom. We want them to discover that communication is not possible without a common language; then they will realize the need for the study of foreign languages. Like "The Man of La Mancha", we dared to dream the impossible dream and make the dream come true with telecommunications. MOTIVATION Getting students online with a computer, a modem and a telephone line puts the world at their fingertips. By entering a few simple commands on the computer keyboard, they can talk to anyone around the world, but only if they speak the same language. At last, we have found our motivating force. The desire to communicate with others, whether they are around the corner or half way around the world is so strong that all we have to do is gently guide the students in the right direction. PROJECT To introduce your students to telecommunications we suggest our Small World project. Students choose a country where the target language being taught is spoken. They research the country through online telecommunications skills using the foreign language. EMAIL AND BULLETIN BOARD Two different site schools (perferrably one in the country being researched) exchange information, ask and answer questions and prepare a report all in the foreign language through email. A student bulletin board such as KIDSnet (KIDSnet-Request@VMS.CIS.PITT.EDU) or Kidcafe (Listserv@ndsuvm1.bitnet) can be used for this purpose. LISTSERV GROUPS Several listserv groups will be used to retrieve and send information. We chose MCLR-L (MCLR-L@SMU.BITNET), MEXICO- L (MEXICO- L@TECMTYVM.BITNET) and EUROPE-L (EC@INDYCMS.BITNET). Here the students will read and write messages in the target language to acquire information needed about their country. TELNET AND INTERNET SITES Students will also access a variety of telnet and internet site to locate reference material on their country. SERVICES (WUGATE.WUSTL.EDU or 18.104.22.168) for example gets them into libraries where they can actually do research online and in the target language, much like ERIC. Telecommunications can also provide exposure to ASCII Art which in turn gives the students a chance to be creative, humorous and self- expressive. NEWS GROUPS There are also many news groups like Soc. Culture Mexico, Soc. Culture Spain, Soc. Culture French, Soc. Culture German etc. which the students can use to post questions and retrieve information for their project in the foreign language. CONCLUSION The use of new technologies and telecommunications will help the students acquire writing, conversational and social skills in a foreign language enthusiastically and successfully while actively participating in real communications with others. Learning a new language is now meaningful and motivation is no longer a problem. All telecommunications addresses were correct at publication time, but could change in the future. We urge you to explore with your students the new and ever-changing world of communication, whether it be a new language, new telecommunications or both! REFERENCES Roberts, N., Blakeslee, G., Brown, M., et al. Integrating Telecommunications Into Education. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1990. Relevant Learning Experiences Using Telecomputing Activities by Patricia G. Ross Most students and teachers find telecomputing activities very exciting at first. In fact, some many not really care "what" they do as long as they are just "on-line." This type of phenomena is common with almost any new experience. For instance, can you remember what it was like when you first got your driver's license as a teenager? You would jump at any opportunity to run an errand just for the chance to get to drive the car. Getting behind the wheel was fun and exciting, and you didn't care "where" you were going just so long as you "got to go"! However, the day probably came when running errands just wasn't fun any more. Parents had to coax you into making the trip, and you probably griped and complained about "having" to run another silly errand! What happened to the thrill and excitement? You had gotten used to it, and the process of driving the car was no longer valued in and of itself. It had just become a vehicle for getting you to one place or another. The "process" was no longer fun, and if the "product" of your trip was not deemed beneficial to you, it was no longer "worth" the trip. Most users of telecomputing systems probably go through a similar process. At first, it is fun and exciting just to be on-line and doing something "different." But after a while, this novelty wears off and students want more from the experience. Students, just like adults, need to see relevancy in what they are doing. If the telecomputing trip serves no useful purpose, or the journey is so arduous and the rewards seemly so paltry, why even go in the first place? Besides being a waste of a valuable instructional opportunity, having students partake in meaningless or "contrived" telecomputing activities presents the risk of having students develop a dislike for the very technology we are trying to encourage students to appreciate! Real and Contrived Uses of Telecomputing Tools Upitis (1990) described the difference in real and contrived uses of telecomputing tools in education. Basically, contrived activities serve no true educational purposes for the students other than as an exposure to the technology. Real activities, as the name implies, provide true opportunities for relevant student learning. She made the very valid point that the telecomputing tools "are best used when the need for using the tool already exists, rather than where one simply finds ways to shape traditional curriculum exercises into electronic forms" (p. 242). The key factor in designing real telecomputing activities is to effectively utilize these resource to assist in instruction. However, the same resources can be either fully utilized or woefully mis-used based on the instructional design of the activity. Electronic mail systems have proved their effectiveness in distance education programs and in other collaborative projects (Upitis, 1990). Many teachers have effectively used email capabilities to run electronic pen pal activities with students from other parts of state, nation, or even the world. This timely and personal involvement with individuals from other parts of the world can provide many real rewards for students. Therefore, collaborative school projects and pen pals activities can be an effective use of this electronic medium "if" both classes have full and immediate access to computers and the telecommunications system. Unfortunately, that time has not yet arrived in many schools. Therefore, classes sometimes are limited to using the system only once a week, if not even less often. This results in students being able to send and receive messages infrequently. Students lose interest in the activity and see no real benefit of this medium over conventional methods of communication (Levin, Rogers, Waugh,& Smith,1989; Upitis, 1990). Using email for pen pal communications in this type of situation provides no benefits other than as practice and exposure to the technology. This type arrangement also makes it impossible to utilize the strengths of email, namely the speed and convenience. Therefore, this is not an effective use of this medium. You might as well let students write letters and mail them in the conventional methods. Or, let the students make and send "video- tape letters" through the mail. These video-tapes could possibly provide an extra richness not available through traditional letters or email messages and would therefore be a more powerful instructional tool. The key point is that if the medium (email) is not effective in reaching the instructional objective, then it should not be used. Telecommunication systems such as the Internet open up many new tools for use by educators. The Internet abounds with FTP sites. FTP sites allow for transfers of an incredibly large number of files from an archive site to your computer. (See "Files for Free! FTP File Transfers on the Internet" in the Dec/Jan 1992 issue of The Computing Teacher for a full description of how to transfer these files, Harris, 1992) While these files contain an almost unimaginable amount of information, how these files are used is the key to their effectiveness as instructional resources. For instance, students are usually very interested in popular music, and they can obtain the lyrics for thousands of songs by different artists from the site Lyric and Discography (address: ftp cs.uwp.edu; subdirectory: pub/music). Since it may be time-consuming or expensive to obtain these lyrics in a more conventional manner, this site allows teachers and students quick and easy access to this resource. A contrived use of this Internet resource would be to have students go to this site, transfer files of specified songs, and then complete activities such as, "What is the first line of the third song?", or "What year was this song written?", or "Name the city this artist describes in this song." These activities serve no instructional purpose for the student; they are strictly "read and regurgitate" activities. There was no benefit for the student for having "made the trip" on the Internet, and it was thus a poor use of the Internet resources. Instead, this resource could be for more meaningful purposes. For instance, you could allow the students to go to the site, select several songs of their choice, and then ask them, "How does this artist use metaphors in her or his songs to convey meaning?", "Identify what you think are the most common themes in the songs of this artist, and give examples from the lyrics supporting your choices." You could also ask the student to compare or contrast the writing styles of different artists, or have them describe the sytlistic changes of one artist over time. Remember, having students get the files is of far less importance than what you have the students do with them once they have obtained them! Examples of real or contrived activities can be identified for almost any Internet site. If you are teaching a unit in social studies on Supreme Court decisions, you could visit the Project Hermes site (address: ftp.cwru.edu; subdirectory: hermes/ascii) and obtain files of different Supreme Court opinions. A petty and contrived use for these files would be to have students list the dates of the opinions, the dissenting judges, or even the number of pages in the opinion. But the important issue here is, "So what?" Why use the Internet resources for fill-in-the blank exercises? Instead, have students take these opinions and "assume the roles" of the different judges and have them hold debates as to why they made the judgments they made. Have students try to identify what values or principals seemed evident in the rulings of different cases. Ask them to "sit on the court" and identify what actions they would have taken in the same situation, and justify their own decisions by writing opinions of their own. These "opinions" could then be posted on a conference for viewing and debating by others. In addition, don't go to an FTP site for information that is readily available elsewhere. For example, the History Archive (address: ftp RA.MSSTATE.EDU) provides a wealth of information relating to history. A contrived use of this site would be to have students transfer files of information that are readily available in textbooks, video tapes, or other resources in the classroom. Instead, let the students explore the site for some of its more current or unique information. For instance, one subdirectory (path:doc/history/USA/ GulfWar) contains the diaries of different individuals involved in the recent Persian Gulf War. Students can read an Israelite's personal account of the missile attacks on his city, or experience the war through the eyes of a young Iraqi lieutenant. These resources are not readily available elsewhere, and this site would therefore provide useful materials to the students. Another resource on the Internet are Telnet sites, which allows for interactive connections to different sites around the country and the world. (See "Telnet Sessions on the Internet" in the October 1992 issue of the Computing Teacher for a full description of these resources, Harris, 1992). Many of these sites have continuous revisions of information which makes up-to-date information readily available to students. For example, the Weather Underground (address at telnet> madlab. sprl.umich.edu 3000) provides an on-line weather service covering forecasts for U.S. regions and cities, including long range forecasts, ski conditions, earthquake reports, hurricane advisories, severe weather advisories, and marine forecasts. I imagine you can already think of several "contrived" uses for this site. You could have students go to this site and find the temperatures for several specified cities, or list the snow conditions in Colorado, or determine if any U.S. cities experienced an earthquake the last month. But, as you know, all of this information could readily be obtained in a newspaper. But even from this readily- available printed source, the information still would be of little educational use to students. How might you use this great site for instructional uses? In a science class, you could set up a "tracking station" for hurricanes or other severe weather conditions. From the information they received from the site, students could do hourly updates and mark on charts and maps in the classroom the progression of storms. They could do projections as to the direction or severity of storms based on background knowledge you would have already provided them about weather tracking. This type of activity utilizes the timeliness and richness of information from this site. It allows active student involvement in a "real-time" event, making the learning even more exciting and MEANINGFUL! By exploring the Internet, you will find many other Telnet sites which provide similar opportunities for meaningful learning activities. When to Consider Telecomputing Tools Telecomputing is still relatively new to most classroom teachers, and many teachers may still be struggling with designing meaningful activities for their students. How do you determine if the proposed activity is a real or a contrived activity? One way is to ask yourself the following questions as you design your telecomputing activity: *What is the educational goal I want my student to achieve? *Is this a worthwhile educational goal, whether it be in electronic or traditional form? *Am I trying to make my educational goals conform to the available technology, or am I using these tools to more effectively meet my instructional goals? * When compared to other available tools, does this electronic tool effectively assist in obtaining this goal? *Can this goal be reached just as effectively using more traditional methods? *Is this electronic medium an effective way to teach an educational goal, or is this activity just a skill-building exercise in the use of the tool? Answering these questions should help teachers design telecomputing activities which are more meaningful and useful for the students. Also, this process should help reduce the tendency to go "on- line" without a real educational purpose or need. Skill Building as a Foundation for Real Learning Some skill-building exercises are needed when introducing students to telecomputing activities. This skill-building and "process" learning is necessary in order to learn to use the tools effectively. As a teacher, you should explain, demonstrate, or illustrate a skill to students and allow them to practice it before they are expected to utilize the skill. There is nothing "contrived" about designing telecomputing activities for the sole purpose of introducing and practicing a skills. One of the instructional goals of telecommunications should be for the needed processing skills to become transparent. This "transparency" will evolve as students use and refine these skills as they complete meaningful classroom activities. Eventually, little thought or effort is needed by the students in "completing the trip" because the processing skills themselves have become established and unobtrusive. Just like when you learned to drive a car, you needed some formal instruction in order to learn how to use your vehicle to get from one place to another quickly, effectively, and safely. But, once you learned how to drive and mastered those skills, you wanted to then put them to real use. Similarly, after initial introduction to telecomputing skills, there should be real instructional purposes to the process, or the activities will be contrived and of little benefit to the students. We must guard against "stalling" students in their skills by having them complete meaningless or redundant activities. Once they have learned a skill, it is not beneficial to have them keep practicing it without applying it for a useful purpose. You could compare it to having them drive back and forth in the driveway to pick up the mail from the mailbox after they have already learned to drive. Yes, they got the mail, but was it really worth the trip, and was that process really beneficial to the student? Couldn't they have put this "driving skill" to better use? This question brings us to the important topic of the design of telecomputing activities. Well-Designed Instruction No matter what tool, resource, or instructional medium you are using, instruction should be well-planned with specific goals and purposes. In planning your telecomputing activities, follow basic lesson design steps as you would with any instructional project. You should plan out relevant activities to meet specific instructional goals. Also, student tasks, deadlines, and evaluation methods should be clearly delineated from the start of the project. (Rogers, Andres, Jacks, and Clausen, 1990). Also, well thought-out projects are likely to be more successful. Teachers should first understand what they want to achieve, and how they want to achieve it, and what tools or skills are necessary in order for the students to successfully complete the activity. Nothing is more frustrating to a teacher, or to his or her students, than to have a much anticipated instructional experience "crash and burn" because of a lack of preparation. The teacher may not be prepared in the organization of the lesson, the students may not be properly prepared with necessary skills or knowledge, or unforeseen system restrictions may limit student access when needed. For instance, some sites have restricted access during "business hours"; therefore, don't try to plan student activities around a site that most likely will be closed to them during the school day. You need to be aware, as much a possible in this rapidly-changing medium, what the characteristics and restrictions are of different sites and systems. Even with all the telecomputing resources available, you still have carefully design the learning experiences for your students. This type of design does not rule out the possibilities for discovery or emergent learning as students participate in telecomputing activities. There can always be opportunities for students to "explore" as they are on-line. However, well-designed projects help reduce the likelihood of presenting contrived activities which are of little benefit to students. Sometimes we may get so caught up in the technology that we forget that telecomputing activities in and of themselves are not necessarily motivating or instructional to students. It is how these activities are designed and carried out with students that makes them meaningful. Systems such as the Internet are no more useful or instructional to students than a quick tour of the library unless the learning activities at the site are purposeful and well-designed. Teachers must first learn how to use the available telecomputing tools and then use their instructional design skills to provide meaningful telecomputing projects and activities for students. Developing meaningful telecomputing activities is still part trial-and- error due to the emergent nature of the medium. Fortunately, more and more ideas for activities are being made available to teachers from published and on-line sources. K12Net, Kidcafe, and Kidprojects are just a few of the on-line sources for classroom telecomputing projects (Rousseau, 1993). In addition, as a classroom teacher, you are one of the greatest sources for designing instructional activities to meet the needs of your own students. As you become more aware of the telecomputing tools and resources available on systems such as the Internet, you can use telecomputing activities as a wonderful tool to enrich the learning experiences of your students. References Harris, J. B. (1992). Telnet sessions on the Internet. The Computing Teacher, 20, (3), 40-43. Harris, J. B. (1992). Files for free! FTP file transfers on the Internet. The Computing Teacher, 20, (5). Levin, J.A., Rogers, A., Waugh, M., and Smith, K. (1989). Observations on electronic networks: Appropriate activities for learning. The Computing Teacher, 16 (8), 17-21. Rogers, A., Andres, Y., Jacks, J., and Clausen, T. (1990). Keys to successful telecomputing. The Computing Teacher, 17 (8), 25-28. Rousseau, M. (1993). Elementary school teachers and telecommunications in the classroom. Unpublished paper. The University of Texas at Austin. Upitis, R. (1990). Real and contrived uses of electronic mail in elementary schools. Computers in Education, 15 (1-3), 233-343. Start Your Own Mail Art Club Bill Rainey For decades people have been using "snail mail" to exchange small, personal works of art. These artists have usually made postcards which might be sent around, added to or changed by a series of people. Others will make multiple copies of a work to be sent to a list of mail art aficionados. Whether the completed works are destined for the gallery or the refrigerator, mail art is an excellent opportunity for kids and adults alike to gain experience in the collaborative production of visual meaning. As its name implies, electronic mail art consists of visual images which are sent through electronic mail. This is achieved by the use of encoding programs which allow a visual image to be changed into ascii text, sent as an e-mail message and then changed back into a picture. The beauty of this approach is that it requires only limited network access. If you can send and receive e-mail, you can become a mail artist. The following discussion will center on Macintosh home computers, though all processes described are possible with DOS based machines as well. Since the pictures are being changed into text, it is even possible for Macintosh and DOS users to trade pictures through electronic mail. Macintosh graphics programs support several different formats for storing pictures. The most common is the PICT file. Other types you may run across include GIF and JPEG. These are both commonly used compression standards, and shareware programs discussed later will allow you to freely convert your files between these types. If you plan to exchange mailart with DOS computer users, it will be necessary to use the GIF or JPEG formats. So let's get started. As an example, I will take you through the creation, encoding, mailing and decoding of a picture. First of all, you will need to create the image to be mailed. Just about any graphics program will work, as long as you can save a file in either PICT, GIF or JPEG formats. I have worked with photographic files using Adobe Photoshop and drawings done with Kidpix with equal success. For the next step, you will need an encoding program. A common all around encoding scheme used on the Internet is called Uuencode. There are several programs out there which will uuencode or uudecode a file for you. As long as both you and your recipients use the uuencoding process, your files will be readable without a hitch. So let's say I've created a picture using Kidpix and saved it as a PICT file. I want this to be available to DOS users, so I use a conversion program such as GIFConverter to change it into a GIF file. Some graphics software will allow you to save files as GIF from the outset, making the conversion unnecessary. My next step is to open up a uuencoding program, such as Uulite for the Macintosh (see descriptions at the end of this article). This shareware program is easy to use and will both encode and decode files using the uuencode process. >From the program, I open up my GIF file and select "encode". This produces a file of the same name with a different ending to indicate that it has been uuencoded. My encoded file is now the original GIF file stored as text. The original graphics program will not be able to make sense of this file until it has been decoded. If you were to look at it using a word processor, you would see line upon line of seemingly random characters. These characters contain all the information needed to recreate the picture at another site. Now that my picture is represented in text, I can easily upload it to my e- mail account and send it either as an attachment to a message or in the body of the message itself. I may send this message to one or many people, depending on who is in my mailart group. While I'm mailing this picture, I notice that my friend across the country has sent me a piece of collaborative mailart. If I look at the message from my mail program, I see nothing but a header, maybe a short description, and line upon line of gibberish. I can't look at it as a picture until it is downloaded and decoded, so I save the message or attached file and download it to my home computer as a text file. Once the file transfer has taken place, I start my Uuencoding program, and select the decode option. This produces a file in the original GIF or PICT format that the sender used. I now run my graphics program, open up the file and voila, I have a picture from across the country. Now it is up to me to manipulate it to my liking, save it as a GIF or other file, uuencode it, and send it to another person as an e-mail message. The following is a list of helpful software for mailart. All programs are available for anonymous ftp from mac.archive.umich.edu. Graphics: Your favorite program will do, as long as it can save files in the PICT or GIF format. If you donŐt have graphics software, programs such as Kidpix (the less powerful shareware version) and LightningPaint are available at Umich in the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil as files kidpix1.0.cpt.hqx and lightningpaint1.1.cpt.hqx. Uuencode/Uudecode: There are several shareware encoding programs available. Uulite1.4 is a ŇsmartÓ and easy to use program. It is available in the subdirectory /mac/util/compression in the file named uulite1.4.cpt.hqx and has a registration fee of only $29. GIFConverter: This program is helpful if your graphics program will not read GIF files or convert between GIF and PICT files. It is available in the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil in the file named gifconverter2.32.cpt.hqx and has a registration fee of $40. JPEGView: This is postcardware (in lieu of a registration, the author requests a picture postcard). JPEGView displays JPEG, GIF and PICT files, and has a neat slideshow feature. The file jpegview2.0.cpt.hqx is available in the subdirectory /mac/graphics/graphicsutil. Software Notes: All of the software mentioned above, and much more, is available for anonymous ftp from: mac.archive. umich.edu. If you are new to the site, read the root directory file 00introduction.txt. This file contains many helpful explanations of file formats and tips on how to retrieve and translate software available by ftp. There are also several helpful files in the /mac/00help subdirectory. Now that we know the technical aspects of sending and receiving mail art, the next step is to find collaborators. Perhaps you already have e- mail partners at another school who would like to expand into the visual realm. As a resource, I will also compile a list of those who would like to hook up with others across the country. To put your name on the list, send me an e-mail message containing your name, e-mail address, age group and any other interests or helpful descriptive information. This information will be compiled and sent to all others who replied. Send messages Bill Rainey at the following Internet address: email@example.com. While it may not lead to works worthy of the Louvre, electronic mail art is an important infusion of artistic activity into our everyday lives. As both producers and consumers of visual materials, we need to develop our proficiency in the discourse of images. Visual literacy has both a reading and a writing component, and mailart is an opportunity for practice in both. Archaeology Unit Carolyn Morris One of the most successful units of study in the fifth grade gifted and talented classroom of Diana Guarniere and Shirley Dunlap is the study of archeology. When updating the unit, the problem then was not to restructure the unit, but to enhance it using the internet. This can be done by using email to subscribe to MUSEUM-L and ARCH-L listserv groups, using ftp protocol to get simulated dig software, and using veronica searches to enhance the research. The following is an outline of the unit and how it can be injected with a healthy dose of the internet. Current student requirements for this unit are to choose a civilization as a group and then choose individual topics of study within this civilization. The students gather information and write a research paper about their topic. At this time, they also choose one artifact to create out of clay for a class dig. When this is complete, students plant their artifacts in boxes filled with newsprint for another group to "unearth". The unit is then finished in reverse mode with teams swapping artifact boxes (dig sites) and repeating the research process in reverse. Thus each group researches two civilizations. The new group of students apply for specific jobs on the dig team and "dig" the site all the time recording their findings and developing a dig manual. Artifacts are plotted as to location in the site and a general hypotheses is developed as to which civilization has been uncovered. Interpretations are made on the naming of each artifact. Students research individual artifacts and write a paper to be included in the team dig manual along with a class position paper using assenting and dissenting evidence about the civilization gained through the dig and research. The project culminates with the students creating a museum to display the artifacts, research manual, and dig manual. This well developed unit can be adapted easily to help the students use current internet resources. Perhaps the easiest way for the classroom teacher to begin using the internet is by subscribing to a listserv and having students monitor the discussions. The two that could easily enhance this unit are MUSEUM-L AND ARCH-L. ARCH-L is a group of practicing archaeologist, professors, students, and amateurs interested in the field of archeology. In the past, they have discussed topics such as urban dig sites, upcoming conferences, and job opportunities. MUSEUM-L is a group of interested museum personnel. Museums of all sizes are represented in this group from very small private museums to the Smithsonian in Washington DC. This group has recently raised questions about everything from what is ethical to sell at a museum store to the guidelines for developing display cases that are accessible to the handicapped. While the topics discussed by these groups change, they have been proven to raise thought provoking topics for class discussion. Use the following guidelines to subscribe to these groups: ARCH-L SUBSCRIPTION ADDRESS: LISTSERV@DGOGWDG1.BITNET PARTICIPATION ADDRESS: ARCH-L@DGOGWDG1.BITNET HOW TO SUBSCRIBE TO THIS DISCUSSION GROUP: 1. Send an email letter to LISTSERV@DGOGWDG1.BITNET 2. In the message type only: SUBscribe ARCH-L Your First and Last Names HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE TO THIS DISCUSSION GROUP: 1. Send an email letter to LISTSERV@DGOGWDG1.BITNET 2. In the message type only: SIGNOFF ARCH-L MUSEUM-L SUBSCRIPTION ADDRESS: LISTSERVE@UNMVMA PARTICIPATION ADDRESS: MUSEUM-L@UNMVMA.BITNET . HOW TO SUBSCRIBE TO THIS DISCUSSION GROUP: 1. Address an email letter to LISTSERV@UNMVMA 2. In the message type only: SUB MUSEUM-L Your Full Name HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE FROM THIS DISCUSSION GROUP: 1. Address an email letter to LISTSERV@UNMVMA.BITNET (or LITSERV@UNMVMA.UNM.EDU) 2. In the message type only: SIGNOFF MUSEUM-L For the more advanced Internet user there are other sources of information available through Gopher. An excavation simulation program called SyGraf is available, says listserv ARCH-L owner, Sebastian Rahtz. " Connect with gopher to ftp.tex.ac.uk on port 70,and see item 4, Archaeology. This reveals 1. ANU/ 2. ARCH-L/ 3. ASOR/ 4. Anthropology and archaeology gopher sources (Yale, UWA)/ 5. Archaeological Computing Bibliography (WAIS database)/ 6. Clonehenge/ 7. Conservation OnLine (cool) (WAIS databases)/ 8. SyGraf/ 9. WAC/" >From there it possible to retrieve the software back to your computer for use in the classroom. Students can also use the program "veronica" that is accessible from many Gopher sites. By using simple Boolean operations: 'and', 'or', and 'not', students can find out what is available on the internet about the civilization that their group has chosen. The above are examples of how the internet can enhance an already in place unit of study. The internet is a fascinating research tool comprised of primary sources of information such as the listserves offer and secondary sources such as software and traditional written reference material. As teachers become familiar with the tool, it will become obvious that the internet does not need to be layered on as another "subject" to teach but can be used as a means of adding zest to existing material. By doing this, students will see a direct connection between what they are learning and the reality of the work force while preparing themselves to use the technology of the information age. Page 1 of 5 WHAT'S THE SAME? WHAT'S DIFFERENT? Project for 2nd and 3rd Graders Project completed between two schools in May, 1993 International Community School Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Africa and Comanche Elementary School Fort Stockton, Texas, USA Project Coordinator: Peggy Wiseman, Librarian Comanche Elementary School 803 N. Rio Phone #915-336-8339 Fort Stockton, Texas 79735 <firstname.lastname@example.org> Page 2 of 5 Project Name: What's the Same? What's Different? Purpose: * To give 2nd and 3rd graders hands-on use of computers and to view a modem as a tool for classroom use. * To illustrate to students in two widely separated schools that students are much more alike than they are different. Content Area: Social Studies/Math. Grade Level: 2nd and 3rd graders Suggested time line: Best as a three week project. * One week practice on using a word processor to key in information off-line. * One week sending and receiving information. * One week analyzing and drawing conclusions. Project requirements: * Email connection between two widely separated schools, preferably in different countries. * Telecommunication software * Computer and printer * Connection to a modem * Interested and willing teachers * Enthusiastic students Guidelines: 1. Teachers at the participating schools will agree upon the information to be shared and construct a pool of questions to guide students. (see attachment for possible questions.) 2. Actual dates and times to transmit information will be set in order to coordinate transmission of information. 3. Maps will be evident in each classroom to remind students of the distance between the two schools. 4. Pretest and postest of student's knowledge of distant school children and the use of a modem. 5. There will be at least two exchanges of information. A. Information about students and their schools. B. Questions about the information received. Possible Project Activities: 1. Comparisons of "Sames/Differents" will be done. 2. Graphs will be made from information gathered 3. Averages and rations made from information. Evaluation criteria: Post Test for information gained and teacher observation of computer/modem use. Other Benefits: An exchange of information on a personal basis should make each group of people more real to the students. The exchange between teachers as they prepare for the project should give them a wider perspective of the whole educational and learning process. Page 3 of 5 Suggested items of information for each student to send to the other school. Some information which can be used for graphs, averages and ratios. Name: Boy or Girl: Birthday: Birth City: Birth State: Birth Country: Eye Color: Hair Color: Best toy/game: Best Book: Job of Father: Job of Mother: Who lives w/you: Other information: Page 4 of 5 POSSIBLE QUESTIONS: One best answer as decided by the students, prepared in small groups or total class. Not all questions have to be answered. 1. What time do you usually get up in the morning? 2. What do you usually eat for breakfast? 3. Describe typical school clothing for boys. 4. Describe typical school clothing for girls. 5. Describe the weather in May at your school. 6. What time do you go to school? 7. How do you travel to school (bus, car, bike)? 8. How many students go to your school? 9. What grades are in your school? 10. What is the 1st thing you do when you get to school? 11. What do you like to study best at school? 12. What is the hardest thing you study at school? 13. What do you like to play at school? 14. What is the name of your principal? 15. What is your favorite lunch menu? 16. What time do you finish the school day? 17. What do you like to do after school. 18. What do you usually do after school and before supper?. 19. What do you usually do after the evening meal? 20. What time do you usually go to bed? GROUP QUESTIONS: (or at least many answers) 1. What is the average distance students travel from home to the school? 2. Give a typical school day's schedule in your school. 3. What do your teachers do that you like best? 4. What do your teachers do that you like least? Page 5 of 5 POSSIBLE QUESTIONS FOR PRE/POST TEST. (selected questions from the information the students will send to each other. Teachers should select information they believe will surprise the students the most. 1. What do you think the children in_____________ wear to school? 2. What do you think the children in ______________ eat for breakfast? 3. How do you think the children travel to the ____________ school? 4. What do you think the children at the ________________ school like to study? 5. What do you think the children at the _________________ school like to play? 6. What is a modem? PROGRAMMING PROJECTS THAT USE THE RESOURCES OF THE INTERNET by Kenneth Higdon As telecomputing becomes more prevalent in K-12 education, students will benefit from the vast resources and information that is available. Student will need to learn how to use this resource to maximize the benefit it provides. The following project ideas should provide the experience the students need. These projects are designed for the students of a computer science class to use E-mail, FTP, Archie, and listserv discussion groups to enhance their learning experience and help them with their programming skills. E-MAIL PROJECT The first project is designed to use E-Mail to conduct a programming project between to different sites. The following could be implemented quite easily only requiring both classes to use the same programming language. The below project assumes that Pascal is the programming language used but you should be able to modify it for what ever programming language that is used. The idea for this project was developed by Cindi K. Schroeder (E-Mail- email@example.com), a computer science teacher in Manhattan, KS, and myself. PROGRAMMING OVER THE NETS Description: A group of computer science students at one site are assigned a task where each student writes one module of an inventory program. The group writes a driver program and then combines the modules and driver together to complete the program. Additional modules that sort and search by item name and price are written by students at another site. These modules are sent over the INTERNET and incorporated into the inventory program at site 1. The original inventory program is sent over the INTERNET to site 2 and the sort and search modules written there are inserted. OBJECTIVE(S): SITE 1 Using procedure/function headers with pre and post conditions and type definitions, a student writes program code for a specific module of an inventory program. A team of students write a driver program that combines the student modules to form an inventory program. Students use telecommunications to transfer the inventory program to students at another site. Students incorporate a program module from another site into the current inventory program. SITE 2 Using procedure/function headers with pre and post conditions and type definitions, a student writes program code for a sort and search module(s) of an inventory program. Students use telecommunications to transfer the module to students at another site. Students incorporate their sort/search module into the base program received from site 1. PROJECT ASSIGNMENT Description of the program Site 1: A team of 4 students are to write an inventory program. The program asks the user for item name, price and quantity. This information is saved to a textfile. The program also allows the user to view the entire inventory along with total cost per item (item price * item quantity). Each team member will write one of the procedures below and test its correctness with a stub program. The team then writes a driver program that combines the procedures and driver together to complete the program. Additional modules that sort and search by item name and price will be incorporated into the program. Description of the program Site 2: A team of students are writing the inventory program described above. You are to write one sort or search procedure listed below that will fulfill the pre/post conditions listed. Write a stub program to test the validity of your procedure. This stub will be sent over INTERNET to site 1 where it will be integrated into their inventory program. The students at site 1 will send their original inventory program to you so you can integrate your procedure into their program. Itemtype = Record ItemName : String; IntemPrice: Real; ItemQuantity: Real; ItemTotal; Real; End (* record *) Itemarr = Array[1..20] of Itemtype; Procedure GetInfor (Var Items:Itemarr; Var Count: Integer) Pre: None Post: Array of records filled with item name, price, quantity and total cost per item Procedure SaveInfo (FileItem:Itemarr; NumItem: Integer); Pre: Array of items and number of items in the array Post: All records and fields saved on textfile Procedure RetreiveInfo(Var GetItem:Itemarr;Var AmtItems: Integer) Pre: None Post: Array of items filled from reading from textfile Procedure Display (DisItem:Itemarr; NItem:Integer) Pre: Array of items Post: Display all Field values of all records in columnar form on the screen Site 2 Procedure SortName(List :Itemarr; ListLen: Integer) Pre: Unsorted list and the number of items in the list Post: Sorted list by item name Procedure SortTotal (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer) Pre: Unsorted list and the number of items in the list Post: Sorted list by total cost per item Procedure SearchName (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer) Pre: List and number of items in the list Post: Price, quantity and total cost per item for desired item name Procedure SearchPrice (List:Itemarr; ListLen: Integer) Pre: List and number of items in the list Post: Price, quantity and total cost per item for all items of a particular cost Procedures/Activities Site 1 (4-5 class hours) 1. One class period to discuss project design and allow students to plan their module. 2. One class period for students to write their module and write stubs to test for accuracy. 3. One period to combine modules into one inventory program and to test and verify. 4. 10 minutes to upload and send program to site 2. 5. 10 minutes to download sort/search program module from 2. 6. One class period to integrate sort/search module (received from site 2) into the inventory program. Site 2 (3-4 class hours) Same as above but omit step 3 GRADING CRITERIA: 4 points for individual stub that works 3 points for group project that works 2 points for approval/grading of someone else's algorithm 1 point for your individual algorithm Each person will fill out a criteria sheet and staple it to his/her algorithm. This algorithm must have the signature of the team member who approved it. All the team's algorithms will be stapled together as the group project packet. SUMMARY: The purpose of this activity is to illustrate how large programs can be divided into independent sections that work on their own and perform just one task. These independent sections can be placed together in a main program to allow the program to perform many tasks. Most software companies use this method when writing programs since it allows for division of labor. Cindi's class and my class just finish doing a programming project over the net. The result were excellent. One additional idea that I suggested to Cindi was to have the student's at each site do a constructive criticism of each others programs. This turned out to be an excellent teaching tool. You could start with a simpler project like having one site do the main part of a math quiz program and the other site doing the various math modules like addition, division, etc. that would be used in the program. LISTSERV DISCUSSION PROJECT The next telecomputing project would be to have the students monitor a discussion group for the language you are teaching. The one for pascal is INFO-PASCAL@brl.mil. This would provide the students with another resource to help them with there programming. It would also let them see some practical application of the Internet. The students could be taught how to search the listserv database for programming topics that they are currently working on. These previous discussions would provide your student real life experience of other programmers. FTP PROJECT The last project would use the FTP and ARCHIE resources of the Internet. The students would be given an assignment where they would have to retrieve programming code that they could use in a program that they were assigned. You as the teacher would first have to explore the various resource so that find code that would work with your assignment. You could either tell the students where the programming code is located. If you wanted to provide a little more of a challenge to the students, you have them use an ARCHIE site to find where the programming code is located. SUMMARY These are just few ideas on how you could use the Internet in your computer science classroom. I do know that the E-Mail was very beneficial project for the students. Not only did it give them programming experience, it sharpened there writing abilities since they had to critique the programs. They also benefited from the interpersonal relationship that results from any interaction between different groups. If any one that reads this would like to get one of the above projects going with another site, you could post a request with a teacher discussion group. You could also E-Mail me, Kenneth H. Higdon, at khigdon@Tenet.Edu or Cindi at firstname.lastname@example.org. Currently Cindi is doing a Young Children Using Computers for Language Arts and Telecommunication Yolanda Esparza The world of technology continues its never ending quest to move us into the technological age. For educators that means accepting computers as tools to enhance the learning opportunities of our students. Computers and their peripherals have become the technological tools of the 90's. As an elementary school teacher, who has recently become involved with establishing a computer lab at our elementary school, I have become curious to seek information about the potential of computers to enhance the teaching and learning of language art skills and whether telecommunications is appropriate at the early elementary grades. The following is information that I found to support the use of computers in the instruction of language arts and the use of telecommunications with young students. It appears that computer use can integrate the essential components of language abilities by providing opportunities for speaking, listening, reading, and writing (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, & Lenk, 1990). There are now available many software programs that provide practice with the essential reading skills needed by young students learning to read. It is even possible for students to learn phonics, because of the ability of computers to produce sound. Some of these programs are highly sophisticated and offer management programs for individual instruction according to the student's individual needs. These types of assisted instructional programs address many of the reading and listening skills of the language arts instruction for the young elementary child. It would be naive to believe that this is the only way computers provide instruction and practice in reading and listening, but it accounts for much of the software on the market today. It is also what most teachers first become familiar with. I mention it only to emphasize the ability of computer instruction to address the reading and listening skills. It is the writing skills, in my opinion, that have been enhanced greatly by the use of the computers in the educational setting. It is due primarily to the word processor and the features it offers. A word processor is a software program that allows the writer to see what he has typed on the screen and offers editing features to make modifying the work much easier. I know my first graders easily learned the basic editing features of Bank Street Writer. In a study by Fisher (1983) teachers reported that students using word processors write, edit, and revise more often and students reported they enjoy word processing because it makes fixing mistakes much easier. Marcus (1990) reports the word processor teaches about the composing process by giving students the control over their written words. The dilemma with word processing especially with the young elementary student is the skill of keyboarding. In order to use a word processor, it is necessary for a student to know how to use a keyboard. In other words, he must know how to type. Knowing how to keyboard has become an issue for educators. Some believe it is essential to have adequate keyboarding skills before a student can benefit from a word processor. Others feel it is the writing that should be emphasized and not the keyboarding skills. Perhaps because I am a teacher of young children, I agree with the latter statement. If the goal is to get students to express themselves by writing, then it makes little difference to me whether they peck at the keyboard or use proper finger positions to type. A study comparing fifth graders that were taught keyboarding skills on a regular basis for two months with third graders who were not given any keyboarding instruction showed that the fifth graders were not typing anymore proficiently than the third graders (Kahn & Freyd, 1990). Another study showed that kindergarten students produced meaningful messages earlier on the word processor than with pencil and paper (Kahn & Freyd, 1990). The mention of these studies is for the purpose of focusing on the goal of writing instead of the physical mechanics. It should not be the keyboarding or handwriting skills that are the objective here, but the ability to express oneself through the written word that is the prime objective. The speaking component of the language arts skills was interestingly addressed by two studies of young children communicating by using a cooperative learning approach with and about computers. A study of kindergarten children learning to use Logo found the children's talk during practice to be task-related, other-directed, cooperative, and non playful (Genishi, 1988). It appears that the young students were eager to share what they knew and seeked information verbally from their peers. What a great way to get students to practice verbal communication with a real purpose. In another study by Dickinson (1986) the computer was used as a tool for a collaborative writing project with first and second graders. The project forced the students to discuss with their partners ideas, opinions, objections and plans for the writing assignment. The project made oral communication a necessary component for accomplishing the task. These are just two ways in which computers have provided opportunities for students to practice and expand their speaking abilities. Computers and appropriate software can enhance the teaching and learning of the language art skills for the young elementary student as suggested by the sited examples above. Therefore, I suggest since telecommunications uses written language as the method of information transfer and young students can begin to communicate with written words it is worth investigating the possible advantages it may provide for our students. First, telecommunications is communication among computers across distances by use of computer networks (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, Lenk, 1990). The necessary equipment needed to access the information source of the future and the communication link to places around the world are a computer, a telecommunications software program, a modem, and a telephone. If the goal of education is to prepare our children for the future then telecommunications must be a factor in that goal (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, Lenk, 1990). Telecommunications is a language arts tool that gives teachers another strategy for increasing the student's communication skills (Roberts, Blakeslee, Brown, Lenk, 1990) Since language arts is all about communication skills, telecommunications makeng. The use of a special projectors allows the students to monitor the words transposed to print. Telecommunication could begin in this manner with another class and as the year progresses small groups of students will likely be able to write letters and stories with little help from the teacher to send to their electronic buddies. It is the excitement and joy that telecommunications bring to the study of language arts that should not be ignored by any grade level. We have at our disposal spectacular New Age machines. The worst we could do-whatever the age of the learner-is use them for groundless or unimaginative purposes that fail to lead to children's understanding and control. Used thoughtfully, computers could change traditional visions of classrooms to enhance the children's thinking and learning (Genishi,1988, p.199). References Dickinson, David K. "Cooperation, Collaboration, and a Computer: Intergrating a Computer into First-Second Grade Writing Program." Research in the Teaching of English, Vol. 20 (December 1986), pp. 357-378. Fisher, Glenn. "Word Processing Will it make all kids love to write?" Instructor and Teacher, Vol. 92 (February 1983), pp. 87-8. Genishi, Celia. "Kindergarteners and Computers: A Case Study of Six Children." The Elementary School Journal, Vol. 89 (November 1988), pp. 185-201. Holvig, Kenneth C. "Jamming the Phone Lines: Pencils, Notebooks, and Modems." English Journal, Vol. 78 (December 1989), pp. 68-70. Kahn, J. and P.Freyd. "Online: A whole Language Perspective on Keyboarding." Language Arts, Vol. 67, No.1 (January 1990), pp.84- 90. Marcus, Stephen. "Computers in the Language Arts: from Pioneers to Settlers." Language Arts, Vol. 67, No.5 (September 1990), pp.519- 524. Roberts, N., G.Blakeslee, M. Brown, and C. Lenk. Integrating Telecommunication into Education. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. THE YEAR IN REVIEW WHAT MATTERS TO YOU? by Cynthia Zapalac Garrett and Julie McMahon Racial Violence, School Finance, Economic Stimulus, NAFTA, National Health Care, European Economic Community, Crime ...What does this have to do with me? Many educators find it difficult to interest students in current issues beyond the "in" brand of jeans and the week's top ten hits. Telecommunications may be the key to awakening young people's interest in the world around them and to creating an awareness of the accessibility of the global village. With this in mind, the ultimate goal of the "The Year in Review -- What Matters to You?" is to allow students to actively explore current world events utilizing the global resources of the Internet. However, as is true with any adventure, many other important skills are developed along the path of exploration. PROJECT OVERVIEW "The Year in Review -- What Matters to You?" is an interdisciplinary project involving the Social Studies, Language Arts, and Computer Literacy content areas. Because of its flexibility, the project may be effectively utilized in grades 6-12. Furthermo re, although designed as an interdisciplinary unit, it may be delivered successfully in a single subject area. The project time line would need to be adjusted accordingly. The final outcome of the unit is the production of a current events newspaper, designed and written by the students, entitled "A Year in Review -- What Matters to You?". Telecommunications is employed as the medium to "interview" students all over the world and gather source material for the news stories the class will write. Instead of merely reading about world events as assigned by a teacher, students are asked to "discover" what was truly important to their peers around the world by asking other students. To begin the project, cooperative teams design a survey which asks other students to name what they believe are the most important events of the current year. The survey should en courage the contribution of events which are important to their school, city/state, and country. After the survey is designed, it is then sent out across the Internet to elicit world- wide response. Upon receipt of the responses, student teams categorize the data, develop a database, and graph the frequency of response themes. Finally, the students use the survey responses and the research capabilities of the Internet to create world events newspaper articles. PROJECT OBJECTIVES Although the overall goal of the project is to enhance student awareness of world events, several other educational objectives are stressed during the course of study. These specific objectives are listed below. * The learner will design a public opinion survey. * The learner will post the survey on Internet bulletin boards and LISTSERV's. * The learner will monitor e-mail, save, print and reply to responses daily. * The learner will compile and code the results of the survey. * The learner will create a database of the survey responses. * The learner will use the Internet to research the events described in the survey responses. * The learner will create a newspaper article based on the research findings. SAMPLE ACTIVITY SCHEDULE Day 1 & 2 (Social Studies Class): The teacher leads a class discussion of basic survey design. Students analyze and discuss various surveys which have been collected from newspapers and magazine sources. Finally, the class develops criteria for the World Events Survey to be distributed across the Internet. Day 3 (Computer Lab): Students work in cooperative groups to design the World Events Survey, using the criteria developed previously in Social Studies class. The class will select the best survey design from all those developed by the cooperative groups, and that survey will be posted on the Internet. An example of the survey posted by our classes at Stafford Middle School and Wharton Junior High School is shown below. Note that a response deadline is given, which allowed two weeks for students to respond to the survey from the date of the original p osting. //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Hello World! We are 8th grade middle school students from Texas and would like your help with a class project. We would like to create a database which contains the most important world events from the past year. Then, we will research the important world events and create newspaper articles based on our findings. Our classes are willing to share these reports with those who reply to our survey. If you can help us, please answer the following survey by April 26, 1993. E-mail the results to: email@example.com Thank you from: Computer Literacy Classes Computer Literacy Classes Stafford Middle School Wharton Junior High School Stafford, TX USA Wharton, TX USA ****************************************************************** IMPORTANT EVENTS SURVEY 1) How old are you? 2) Are you a male or a female? 3) Where so you live? (City, State, Country) 4) What is the name of your school? 5) What was the most important event that happened in your school during the past year? (Please explain briefly why you feel this event was so important) 6) What was the most important event that happened in your city or state during the past year? (Please explain briefly why you feel this event was so important) 7) What was the most important event that happened in your country during the past year? (Please explain briefly why you feel this event was so important) /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Examples of places to post survey: -KidSphere (previously KidsNet) Internet BBS, address Kidsphere-Request@VMS.CIS.PITT.EDU -KidCafe LISTSERV, subscription address LISTSERV@VM1.NODAK.EDU Tip: To get more international responses, have your students "cruise the KidCafe". Have students mail the survey to international students who are looking for penpals. These students are anxious to write and the survey is a good basis for developing a pen-friend relationship. Days 4 - 17 (Computer Lab) Cooperative learning groups take turns monitoring the e-mail for responses to the survey. Students should save the results to a file, print the results, and distribute them to the social studies teacher. Students should also acknowledge responses via e-mail. Days 12-17 (Social Studies Class) Students should begin to discuss and categorize responses by themes. Then, the class designs a Key Word Code structure to aid in consistent data entry for the computerized database. An example of a Key Word code structure is shown below for the most im portant events responses: Survey Response Key Word Presidential Election Politics Rodney King Trial Racial Tension or Police Brutality Toronto Blue Jay's win World Series Sports Day 18 (Language Arts) Teacher should discuss format and criteria for the newspaper article as well as the proper documentation techniques for telecommunications sources. Students should select research topics for their newspaper article, based on the survey responses. Day 18 (Computer Lab) Students and teacher design a database that would be appropriate for entering the survey results. The database should utilize the keyword codes developed in social studies class. Day 19 - 21 (Computer Lab) Two activities will be going on simultaneously in the computer lab (if as in most schools, access to the modem is limited). Students should be placed in pairs to work on database entry, having one student enter the results while the other checks for acc uracy. During this time, each set of partners can have a chance to use the Internet to research their article topic(s). *Examples of Internet Resources for Research* Telnet Sites: SERVICES - wugate.wustl.edu or 22.214.171.124 This site has a large variety of information including many science databases, the geographic name server, and access to many libraries. UMD Info Database - info.umd.edu or 126.96.36.199 This site has a gopher system available which will allow students to perform Veronica searches and WAIS based searches. From the main menu of the site, government information such as the CIA World Fact Book and economic data are available. Cleveland Freenet - freenet-in-a.cwru.edu or freenet-in-b.cwru.edu There is a wealth of information available at this site. For the research project, students may be interested in the on- line access to USA Today. FTP Sites: Lyric Server - cs.uwp.edu This site contains a wealth of information on music and would be appropriate for students researching topics related to music. (CARL) Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries - pac.carl.org or 188.8.131.52 Online database, book reviews, magazine fax delivery service. On-line encyclopedia. Access to library catalogs. Access to ERIC. Earthquake Info.- geophys.washington.edu or 184.108.40.206 Seismographic Net Info. Handicap/Medical Site - handicap.shel.isc-br.com or 220.127.116.11 General medical information and information for specific diseases and conditions. World News - ftp.uu.net World news (usenet newsgroups) and court opinions Day 22 (Computer Lab) Students use the database to create graphs and charts which represent frequency of response themes. On-line research may continue if necessary. Days 19-22 (Language Arts) Students write articles for the newspaper based on research findings. Days 23-25 (Computer Lab) Students use desktop publishing software (or a word processor) to create the final newspaper, "The Year in Review - What Matters to You?" Summary Teachers are encouraged to utilize this project description as a framework for their own world events research units. Each school has slightly different computer lab access and team structure, therefore the project can be adapted to suit each school's n eeds. Parts of the project may need to be omitted or enhanced to emphasize a particular teacher's objectives. However, this project teaches many valuable research skills and allows students to think critically about the events happening in their world. Through incorporating different activities, and different disciplines, students see a variety of views of the same problem which enhances lateral thinking. Do you need a fresh way to teach old topics -- database, current affairs, journalism, desktop pub lishing? Why not try "A Year in Review -- What Matters to You?". BUILDING A BETTER TOMORROW by Sue Vasser <firstname.lastname@example.org.> 3rd grade teacher Austin, Texas 78731 RATIONALE: With the overwhelming evidence that interactive activities in education produce better learning, I wanted to incorporate several facets of this style of learning into my Social Studies project. It is my belief that with only a little modification, teachers from others grade levels would be able to adapt this lesson idea. SUBJECT AND AUDIENCE: Social Studies (Communities), 3rd grade OBJECTIVES: 1. Students will describe how their community is similar and different from other communities in the United States. 2. Students will simulate the growth and development or decline of a city or small town. 3. Students will cite factors relating to a population's growth or decline. 4. Students will gather data from different communities in the U.S. to assist in their research. 5. Students will relate their findings to the cities they have connected with through the internet. MATERIALS NEEDED: Computer with hard drive, printer, modem and software, access to the internet, and SimCity (software program by Maxis), and classes around the United States willing to contribute information about their community through e-mail. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: Students should become familiar with the computer program, SimCity. In this program they will need to be able to maneuver around so as to construct their cities and deal with disasters. They will experience the need to make ,save and spend money wisely. There is plenty of opportunity for teachers to expand this program into the areas of math and science as well as social studies. Students will also need to feel comfortable logging onto the internet and the tasks necessary to accomplish the task. For this particular unit students will need to be able to use e-mail, the Geographic Name Server, the Underground Weather Service. and the World Factbook. TIMELINE: 3 weeks to establish prior knowledge and teacher preparation and 3 weeks to complete assignments. TEACHER PREPARATION: Create an invitation to participate in the project, and post the invitation on matchmaker with the appropriate guidelines as outlined by two articles presently posted on Matchmaker,"Keys to Successful Telecomputing" by Al Rogers, Yvonne Andres, Mary Jacks, The FrEDMail Foundation, Published in The Computing Teacher, May, 1990, Page 25ff and "Tips for Successful Telecommunications Projects" by B.J. and J.A. Dodge. Both of these are great. Through this preparation, I would hope to find classes from several different kinds of communities such as farming, mining, and port communities. The teacher should learn the program SimCity City and be prepared to teach it as a large group instruction. Later students will break into groups for their own special endeavors. TELECOMMUNICATION SITES USED: 1.Geographic Name Server telnet martini.eecs.umich.edu 3000 2.Underground Weather -telnet madlab.sprl.umich.edu 3000 3.World Factbook-Telnet lib.dartmouth.edu 4.Matchmaker (News and Conferences) 5.e-mail PROCEDURE: 1. Several weeks prior to starting the unit post the call for collaboration. 2. Teach the students how to log on to the internet and perhaps let them practice e-mailing some classes in nearby schools. 3. Prepare the students to use the software program, SimCity. 4. Begin the unit. Students will be divided into three groups; mining, farming, and ports. These groups will brainstorm the kind of information they would like to collect from their new internet friends and then make contact with the participating schools respectively. Hopefully, the students will in turn use the data and information they are collecting to help them make some good decisions when building their different communities. Each group will be constructing the kind of community they were assigned to Students will keep a log or journal of each day's activities and record pertinent information gathered either from telnet sites, e-mail or their SimCity program. Each group will at the end of 3 weeks report their findings in a class presentation, using charts and graphs showing data collected and success or failure of their community and tell why. As a part of each day, I will present general but basic information about these three types of communities. Our textbook has a lot to offer in terms of basic information. Each day students will also check the Underground Weather Service (telnet madlab.sprl.umich.edu 3000) to record the temperature of their 'sister city' or one nearby. In the beginning students will telnet to martini.eecs.umich.edu 3000 to access the Geographic Name Server. Using this they will record longitude and latitude, population etc. from this site.of their sister city. This information will be used in their class report. Students will also telnet lib.dartmouth.edu to use the World Factbook. Using this will take some teacher guidance at the 3rd grade level. From this site information about specific ports, mines and farming regions around the world are available. The conclusion of this project will be the presentation of the group reports. If students show reasons why changes took place and can explain or justify their choices when building their community, as well as give first hand information from the internet city, I will consider the project successful. INTEGRATED ACTIVITIES: 1. Display a world may showing location of cities that we are "typing' to . 2. Write stories whose settings are in our different communities. 3. Write a song about our kind of community. 4. Draw a diagram of of each simulated city. 5. Read stories and books set in each of the communities. (A Paradise Called Texas by Janice Shefelman) 6. Write letters to the internet cities explaining what we are learning and share our final data collection with them SUMMARY The students will be personally involved in being city planners of the future. They will use information gathered from their internet friends and their communities to make good decisions in creating the simulated cities. In this process students will use many skills and resources from all classes as they learn some new and valuable computing skills. Software Program Information: SimCity, 3rd grade through adult, Maxis Software Two Theatre Square, Suite 230, Orinda, CA 94563-3346 $39.95 KEEPING CURRENT WITH FREEWARE AND SHAREWARE APPLICATIONS by Emil Biga Audience: k-12 mac-lab care-takers and teachers with some knowledge of the internet Lead: I am a teacher sitting at my desk wondering where I would find the time to write an application that would help me in my classes. I also know that others are probably thinking the same thoughts, and that one of those people might actually write a similar application, but how would I find time to find out? Or I am a network supervisor and the users of the Mac-lab are loading on and removing applications from the hard drives on the networked computers. Someone could and should write shareware applications to help me manage the network. Where could I find time to find such resources? Establishing section: You will now find out by to teaching your students how to access a newsreader to find the availability and brief descriptions of new applications. These applications range over the entire spectrum of applications that creative Mac programming minds can produce. Many are just what you may be looking for--even if you do not realize that now. Your students will also be taught where to get the applications, and then store the applications in the hard drives of the computer lab. Development: The two newsgroups that I frequent are comp.sys.mac.announce and comp.sys.mac.digest Both groups are moderated so the information is current and stays in the newsgroup for only a few days. The comp.sys.mac.announce newsgroup contains announcements that are of interest to the Mac community as interpreted by the moderator. The latest virus released on the Mac community will be announced here, and in a few days, the updated virus protectors will be posted. For those virus protection applications which need only to have a few lines of information changed, that information will appear in this newsgroup. With those virus protection applications that are redone, the ftp site will be given. For a particular example, on 27 Apr 1992 13:43:58, Peter Dodd from the University of Texas at Austin posted a note that a free Laboratory Administration Utilities package was available from Western Australia University CS-Department. One of the utilities was called BootPass. BootPass is a simple password protection system extension which can protect certain applications from tampering. The other newsgroup, comp.sys.mac.digest, contains zero to five daily digests of Mac-related questions, comments, thoughts, and new applications. Every digest is less than a week old. They are also archived at SUMEX-AIM.Stanford.EDU, in the info-mac directory, if you miss them in the comp.sys.mac.digest newsgroup. SUMEX-AIM.Stanford.EDU is one of the ftp sites that you can download virus protection applications, especially the freeware Disinfectant. The following is the list of the many subdirectories in the info- mac directory, each of may contain hundreds of applications. Monitoring this list is a time-consuming task, which students could enjoy doing. info-mac app(lications) art gif (compressed pictures and applications to view them) qt (quick time movies) card (HyperCard stacks) comm(unication applications) cp (computer programs) da (desk accessories) demo(nstrations of applications) digest csmp (com-sci mac programmers digest) im (general questions and answers digest with newlistings of files added to info-mac archives) tb (tidbits archive) (new additions to the above digests are available on comp.sys.mac.digest newsgroup) vapor (vaporware archive) ex(tras applications that don't fit any where else) fkey font (fonts) tt (true type fonts) game help lang(uages computer languages) misc(cellaneous) report sound source c pascal tech(niques) tips unix util(ities) ad (after dark files) virus One of the comments posted on Mon, 27, Apr 92 22:03 EST by Jerome A. Levin, from the Medical College of Ohio, describes Hard Drive Updating software. He wrote that there is an application called RevRDist that will compare every file on the Hard Drive with a reference folder, when the Mac starts up. If any extra files are found, they will be placed in a Junk Folder, which can be placed anywhere and will be discarded at specified intervals. If any extensions or control panels are replaced, the client Mac will reboot when the process is done. This can also be used to add or update any files on the client Macs by placing them in the reference folder. Of course the caveat is that this will slow the initial startup process and put heavy traffic on the network when the Macs are turned on at the beginning of each day, but this application will save the Lab staff (us) time. How can this all be accomplished? Pick a group of students who enjoy working in the Lab. Have them monitor the newsgroups and keep electronic notes on the applications and announcements that are current for that week. At weekly meetings of these various students (sooner if there is a virus alert), an agreement will be made as to which applications look inviting. Let the students go to a ftp-site and download the applications to an account at your cooperating university. From there, the students will download the application for distribution. They will play with the application and return to the group with comments on its use. These comments will lead to an evaluation as to the usefulness and appropriateness of the application, and the application will be put on your network or it will be saved for more thought, or you will decide not to put it on the network. Not only will students be learning a process, they will be freeing you from the monitoring and acquisition of applications. This time can be spent on the less mundane tasks we all have to do. INTERNET TO THE STARS by Becky Larson, Jody McQuillan, & Barb Andersen The study of astronomy is found in upper elementary through middle level science classes. Through interdisciplinary activities within science, language arts and telecommunications, astronomy may be enhanced. Telecommunications can be used to enhance the scientific method approach to learning because of its motivational interactive platform. Not only can we measure, predict, hypothesize and communicate within our own class, but we can also do the same with distant classrooms. Language arts and telecommunications enhances astronomy by allowing the learner to ask, seek and find, and interact with his/her own ideas on what astronomy is. SCIENCE Within the science classes, the students, using the scientific method, will observe and measure the location of the constellations or specific planets at their own site and through analysis and computations predict the location of the constellations and planets at a different site school. Students will be using email, telnet, and ftp internet resources to accomplish these activities. To find a school to collaborate with, a posting can be placed on SpaceMet, an internet telnet resource, KidsNet, or KidProj, both Kids are listserv groups. To connect to SpaceMet, use the telnet address, spacemet.phast.umass.edu. When at the SpaceMet main menu, choose the Bulletin submenu, within this submenu choose (B)ulletin Boards in Massachusetts, within this submenu choose SpaceMet/Physics Forum, within this submenu choose the file educator.lst. At the beginning, there will be directions as to posting in this list or you can scroll through the list looking for schools you might contact yourself. To subscribe to KidsNet use the address, request-KidsNet@vms.cis.pitt.edu, leave the subject line blank and in the body type, Subscribe KidsNet Your full name. To send correspondence use the address, KidsNet@vms.cis.pitt.edu, type your request in the body of the message. To subscribe to KidProj use the address, email@example.com, leave the subject line blank and in the body type, Subscribe KidProj Your full name. To send correspondence use the address, KidProj@ndsuvm1.bitnet, type your request in the body of the message. Science students using email will communicate their astronomy predictions to other students from at least one other school. Since weather can be a limiting factor, students can access current weather data and conditions from Weather Underground, a telnet resource site, or WX-TALK: Weather, a listserv group. To connect to Weather Underground use the address, madlab.sprl.umich.edu 3000 or 18.104.22.168 3000. To subscribe to WX-TALK use the address, firstname.lastname@example.org, leave the subject line blank and in the body type, Subscribe WX-TALK Your full name. To send correspondence use the address, WX- TALK@uiucvmd.bitnet, type your request in the body of the message. To access information concerning the different planets, Spacelink can be used. To connect to Spacelink, use the telnet address, spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov or 22.214.171.124. When it asks for user-id type: newuser. Password is also newuser. When at the NASA Spacelink main menu choose Classroom Materials, within this submenu choose Astronomy Information, within this submenu choose Our Solar System at a Glance, within this submenu choose the file Mercury. This file describes Mercury's attributes and location on the horizon at dusk and dawn. Currently, information on the constellations has not been found at telnet or ftp sites on the Internet. Astronomy textbooks and reference books from your own library or the public library may be of assistance. Another possible contact may be your local university physics department and/or local planetarium. To implement and verify the predictions of this activity the students will need a protractor, sextant and a compass. Use the compass to locate magnetic north. For the lower to middle level grades, a giant protractor can be made. By placing it on the ground, the students will stand in the middle facing magnetic north and turn clockwise to obtain the location, in degrees, of the planet or constellation in reference to magnetic north. To find the location, in degrees, of the constellations and planets above the horizon, students will utilize the sextant. Predictions can be obtained by determining the longitude and latitude of the sister site, as well as time of observation and inserting these figures into a software application such as Voyager 1.0 or MacAstro. These figures will render the right ascension and declination of the particular constellation or planet under investigation. If weather conditions do not allow synchronous viewing by participating schools, a factor of .986 degrees per day needs to be added to the initial right ascension figure. LANGUAGE ARTS The study of astronomy will cross discipline lines using the language arts curriculum to enhance the science curriculm. While learning about astronomy, the student will have the opportunity to gain insight into astronomers of the past, and some possible origins of the constellations. A character online, through email, would be a sounding board for students to communicate their ideas to and be a disseminator facts and information. We felt the idea of our students being able to ask questions, share ideas about constellations and planets, and explore possible mythological origins of the solar system is a very powerful way to initiate discussion and aid in student communication and language skills. THE PLAN: for Language arts integration Your online character could be recruited from a planetarium, university physics department or interested high school students. Third-Fourth grades : Galileo Project After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, and being introduced to Galileo, one the first astronomers, the students would be asked to write a letter to him. They could brainstorm in small groups some "important" questions they could ask Galileo. The teacher could direct them toward questions like : "Where did your ideas come from? What did you to make your telescope?" During this time the student's questions could be compiled and through group consensus and electronically mailed to him. Use groups of three students per "letter" to compose, edit, and scribe (Type in this case). The students then will receive messages back from Galileo that may contain a few old english terms, and of course as accurate information compiled by our team. We will continue to "communicate" in this way through out the year building our writing, spelling, editing, and collaboration skills. The discussions will increase in information exchange as we learn more about the solar system and planets from our other electronic sites. Fifth and Sixth Grades: Ask Starmann After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, and being introduced to a fictional character named Starmann. The students would be asked to write letters, asking questions about their most recent learning about the stars and planets. They could brainstorm "important" questions in small groups. The teacher could direct them toward concepts and ideas that need further exploration. Starmann may ask them more questions than they ask him. He would communicate in a very sci-fi futuristic tone. The language arts infusion would incorporate the writing skills and highlight the use of clear communication and character development. Seventh and Eighth Grades: Mythology and the Stars After being given the initial lessons on the solar system, and being introduced to mythological Greek characters that are found in the sky, the students would be asked to write a letter to their favorite astrological cluster. They could agree upon the possible character to discuss for the week and then write a letter to that character at a Heavenly address. IE: Zeus at Hera's Palace, Mount Olympus. The students would be asked to compose possible myths about why the stars were placed in the sky. They could also ask for possible hints. This could be used with word bank lists from actual myths about a particular firmament placed in the sky. IE: The story of Icarus which contains these words: wax-wing- melted-ocean-flew- wishes-warning-sun-capture-chariot-Zeus. Now construct a story using these words about the creation of the constellation Icarus. The main goal of this extension to the stars, would be for short story fiction writing, again incorporating skills of communication, editing and writing into science and space exploration. These activities can be adapted to a variety of grade levels with minor alterations. The thrust of our ideas focuses on the students' realization that information is no longer a limiting factor in our experiences. The advent of telecommunications has allowed for the expansion of interactive learning, cooperative thinking and global awareness. Students are now able to tread where no student has trod before. BRINGING THE HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS INTO THE MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM: BY CAROL A. WALDRON 5 MAY 92 Our society is entering the Information Age, a time in which information is the raw material and communication its means of production. The transition from an industrial to an information society is being attributed to the increased availability of affordable technology such as computers, VCRs, and Video Cameras. The effects of technological innovation on business, government, and industry are paralleled by dramatic changes in the physical, social, and life sciences. More than many other areas of study and application, mathematics is being taken in new directions. Modern technology has caused a shift in what mathematics a person needs to know. Yet, in the midst of this change, the teaching of mathematics has remained relatively unchanged. We can not continue relying on rote memorization of rules as enough to prepare students for productive, fulfilling lives in the Information Age. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics have noticed the need for change and have developed the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. The following lesson plan, is an idea I had that is aimed at accomplishing at least two of the five goals. The first goal states that students should learn to value mathematics through numerous, varied learning experiences that illuminate the cultural, historical, and scientific evolution of mathematics. The second goal states that students should become confident in their mathematical abilities. The following lesson plan involves the study the evolution of mathematics with emphasis on the various people and cultures that shaped it. Students need to be aware of the variety of contributions each culture has made to mathematics, especially the non-European cultures such as Africa or Asia. Our history texts frequently leave out the contributions of non-European cultures and women. Racial barriers are hard to break down; blacks, Hispanics, and women are often led to believe they can't succeed in mathematics, so why even try. By giving all students a chance to study the contributions of past cultures, I believe students will not only learn to value mathematics and its relationships to other disciplines, but become confident in their own mathematical abilities. By understanding how mathematics evolved through the different disciplines, students will develop an appreciation for mathematical skills in today's world. CONTENT AREA/TOPIC: Mathematics History: The study of mathematicians and their cultures with the use of telecommunications GRADE LEVEL:7-10 OBJECTIVES: Students will... 1. Learn how to research facts related to a historical period, culture, or topic. 2. Learn how to collect, organize, store, and retrieve information using telecommunications. 3. Discuss the information obtained on past mathematicians and their contributions. 4. Learn how to communicate with a distant audience via telecommunications. 5. Learn how to engage in electronic transfer of information. 6. Develop descriptive writing skills. 7. Broaden cultural experiences by learning about people and cultures from other geographic locations. 8. Learn how to upload and download text files. 9. Learn how to create and enter information into a data base. 10. Practice their word processing skills. PREREQUISITES: Prefer some previous experience with using database and word processing software. Otherwise, the teacher should allow another week for developing basic skills. MATERIALS Software: Word processing software such as FrEdWriter or WordStar that can be used for uploading and sending to other computers. It is easier though to use integrated softare that includes word processing, data base, and telecommunications capability all in one such as Apple Works or Microsoft Works. This would be better since you will be using all three applications. Hardware: Internal or External modem, a telephone line, access to Internet (contact your local college or university for access), an IBM PC, Apple II, or Macintosh microcomputers. COMPUTER ACCESS: 1. During the research and data collection phases of the lesson, students will need intermittent access to the computers to perform online searches of libraries. These libraries should be in the local area, if your school does not have access to online libraries or services such as BRS or Dialog Information Services, Inc. which provide downloading of full text. 2. Students will need access to computers for development and transmission of electronic messages to the Cleveland Free-Net (telnet to 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, or 220.127.116.11). PREPARATION: 1. Gather software and resource materials. 2. Make group assignments. Suggest groups of four. 3. At least 4 weeks before starting the project, you will need to contact the Cleveland Free-Net and register as a new user. Once you have received approval, your ID and password, you will need to go to the Academy One directory and enter your class as an Academy One school. Next, print a list of the non- US partners identified in the Academy One Directory. DISCUSSION: 1. Motivating Activity: As a whole class, have students pretend they live in an Indian village like the one in the movie "Dances With Wolves". Have the students discuss how or why they would use math. For example, how would they barter with other people or villages. How would they calculate time. Who are these people who devise theories or methods about numbers. Ask the students to think about how people became involved in mathematics hundreds of years ago. Were there any mathematicians who were women? Did other cultures such as Africa or Latin America have mathematicians like Einstein? 2. Introduce the lesson by stating that the object of the project is to collect information on mathematicians from around the world throughout history. To prevent duplication, you may want to provide a list of possible mathematicians and let them choose those individuals they want to research. The students will first start by researching information about mathematicians that we have in our Libraries. The children will collect preliminary information by accessing Online Library Catalogs to develop a list of books or other references that have information on mathematicians. Remind the students that many mathematicians don't have books written about them, so they will have to research books on mathematics history or mathematicians in general. Encyclopedias and magazines may even have some information. The teacher can either obtain the books for the students or let the students get the necessary books/information on their own. This depends on the age of the students. 3. After the students have collected preliminary information on the mathematicians, have them discuss what information they want to include in the data base. Here is a selection of data base fields you might list on the chalkboard for your students to consider: Last Name, First Name, Date of Birth, Date of Death, Place of Birth, Nickname, Nationality, Occupation(s), Known for, and Interesting Facts. When your students have decided what fields the data base should include, have each group design and sketch out possible data record layouts on the chalkboard. Once the design of the data base is chosen, set it up on the computer for them using your data base software. Print out a blank data record, and make photocopies for the students to use for information gathering. 4. After the groups have filled in their data records, print out the records and have each group quality check the other groups' records. Once the data base is complete, have each team brief what interesting information they found and what, if any, difficulty they had finding information about certain individuals. Pinpoint on a map where each mathematician was from and discuss any cultures such as Blacks or Asians that they did not have any information about? If so, discuss why there is no information on these cultures? 5. The next step is to separate the list of Academy One schools among the groups. Their task is to send an email message that explains their project and outlines what they discovered during their research and the class discussion. They are to ask the school for information on mathematicians from their country to be added to the data base. A copy of the data base information will be sent to them once all the information has been compiled from around the world. Each student in the group should write at least one of the email messages. 6. Once all the international information is added to the data base, have each group discuss what additional information they found. What conclusions can they draw? 7. Have each of the groups compose email messages expressing their appreciation for the additional information and the findings/reactions of the class about the project. Each group should send a copy of the data base to each school they corresponded with during the project. EXTENSIONS/ADAPTATIONS: 1. A follow on project could be to publish the information for other mathematics classes. 2. You might want the students to interview professionals in other disciplines such as business, medicine, arts, agriculture, crime control and prevention, and science use mathematics. The students can interview professionals found in the professional Online Discussion Groups (often found in services such as USENET and LISTSERV) that are available on the Internet or Bitnet. This will impress on the students the importance of math in the future as well as the past. USING TELECOMMUNICATIONS CAN HELP TEACH AT-RISK STUDENTS by Shirley Hasche Jolene Langan Barbara Renkenberger The number of students that are not graduating from traditional schools is increasing. We, as educators, need to find a way to make these at risk students become contributing members of society. As the computer becomes a vital part of the future job market, we need to make sure that at risk students are empowered with the knowledge of computers so that they may join the next generation of productive thinkers. SCANS Goals According to the Department of Labor, SCANS (Secretary's Commission of Achieving Necessary Skills), there is a three- part foundation that students need to have in order to find and hold jobs. The first one is the need for Basic Skills which deals with reading, writing, performing arithmetic and mathematical operations, listening and speaking. The second one is Thinking Skills which deals with thinking creatively, making decisions, solving problems, visualizing, knowing how to learn, and reasoning. The final part is Personal Qualities that display responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self- management, integrity and honesty. Infusing telecommunications into the education of at risk students will help achieve SCANS goals. The Project The at risk students attending two high schools will be involved in telecommunicating with each other as they learn to use the computer skills needed for their future. Computers will be integrated into every class that the at risk students attend and will be used for homework, extra credit projects and classroom work. The introduction to computer use will start with these different levels. Level 1: One-Way Electronic Mail Level 2: Online - Participative (Bulletin Board) Level 3: Online - Full Interactive Communications Level 4: Online - Interactive and Planning E-Mail and Bulletin Boards There will be a bulletin board and E-mail system set up so that both schools can link up. Students will start by sending surveys to each other about cars, sports and other topics of interest. They will be required to report in their English and Speech classes the results. The bulletin board will be designed as a place where they can relax, chit chat and compare problems. By using the bulletin board, the students will be improving their listening (reading) and speaking skills as well as learning proper social skills (avoid flaming) and relating to peers in a positive ways. This will also improve their self-esteem. File Transter Protocal Sites (FTP) The fine arts will be the FTP Archives site Lyric and Discograph (FTP cs.uwp.edu) where the students will be able to get information about music, it's lyrics, and information about the classical and popular musicians. The students will be assigned a song, composer or band and will have to research and gather data about that time period. The students will have to do a report about their topic for Social Studies about the mood of society in that time frame. The use of computers in this area will aid in the development of reading, writing, gathering data, decision making, and creative thinking. Telnet Sites The students will work on the computer for math class by developing story problems. The students will be given zip codes for the 24 cities that contain professional football leagues. Each school will receive 12 zip codes. The students must create two step word problems that have the zip code as the answer. They will exchange the problems and then solve the ones sent to them. They will have to use the Geographic Name Server (telnet martini.eecs.umich.edu 3000 or telnet 18.104.22.168 3000) to discover the teams that they had correct. This will help in the acquisition of such skills as performing arithmetic and mathematical operations, problem solving, reasoning and cooperative learning. The spinoff from this Level 3: Full Interactive Communication will be to use other telnet sites for a host of integrated activities that the at risk students can identify with as relevant to their lives. For example, in the area of Science, the students will be able to use telnet sites to: find out the weather in all parts of the world (Weather Underground: telnet hermes.merit.edu or telent 22.214.171.124), to check natural disasters that are happening, to get updated on ecology, and to do comparison shopping of staple food items of our global village. The at risk students also need to have the experiences of art and P.E. Telecommunications will provide exposure to ASCII Art which will provide humor, creativity, and positive self-expression. the P.E. experience will include building manipulative dexterity, improving left and right brained crossover activities, and eye/hand coordination. Conclusion The use of telecommunications by at risk students will help them to change from being possible dropouts to becoming positive, enthusiastic members of society. By including telecommunications within the education of at risk students, we are adding to their education, the goals that SCANS demands for productive members of society. The addresses given were current at the time of writing, but could change in the future. Teachers need to use their own experiences to explore other sites and develop other uses of telecommunications. They need to expand the suggestions above to teach students in a new way which is exciting to both the teacher and students. References Drucker, P.F., (1992). Performance, accountability, and results. The American School Board, March. A4-A11. Frymier, J.R., (1989). The phi delta kappa study of students at risk. Phi Delta Kappan, October. 142-146. Gross, B. (1990). Here dropouts drop in and stay! Phi Beta Kappan. April. 625-627. Kagan, D.M., (1990). How schools alienate students at risk: a model for examining proximal classroom variables. Educational Psychologist, Vol.25, 2: 105-125. Kagan, D.M., (1988) How do teacher define students at risk? The Clearning House / AEIS / ASU. Vol.61, 7: 320-324. Mailing address Arizona Educational Information System Bureau of Educational Research and Services Tempe College of Education Arizona Stat University Tempe, AZ 85287-2611 U.S. Government Department of Labor. (1991). What work requires of schools / a scans report for america 2000. U.S.Government Printing Office. Telephone 1-800-788-SKILL for a free publication. TELECOMMUNICATIONS: YEAR ONE...a BEGINNING by Arlene Haynes and Karen Spellman Telecomputing began at Oak Valley School as a result of receiving a classic Macintosh from a school community promotion in partnership with a local adopt-a-school partner. The capabilities of the computer were quite limited and little appropriate software was available to meet the needs of the students. In addition, the staff was not familiar with the Macintosh and would need training. Utilizing the site-based management budget monies, the necessary hardware was ordered to make the low functioning Classic Macintosh into a 21st century telecommunication center for our school of 290 students. Thus the beginnings of telecomputing at Oak Valley School. Knowing that the equipment would be in the building and in place sometime during the first semester of the school year, plans were needed for the training and implementation of this system. The principal and a second teacher decided to take a course and learn more in-depth about telecommunication. As a result of the university course, the training, and research that was done, the implementation of telecomputing became a reality through the following projects. The second graders began preparing early in the school year for telecommunications. They became familiar with the keyboard and a few basic programs. It did not take long for the children to become comfortable using the computer every day to practice and extend the skills they were learning. Portable, battery-operated keyboards were used to familiarize the children with the keyboard. The use of these keyboards allowed the students to practice locating the main keys without monopolizing the computer for keyboard instruction. The computer itself remained available for work on assigned programs. The children quickly learned the location of the keys needed to type their names and to run a basic program. Practice on these keyboards was assigned to the students as a learning center activity. After the students had a chance to become familiar with the keyboard, the concept of telecommunications via a computer was introduced. A public domain program, KidMail, simulated an actual telecommunications situation. This simulated program required account names and passwords. Another class of second graders became involved. Partners were assigned and the children began corresponding. Each child typed their own letters, with some help from the teacher. The letters were short reflecting their age and writing ability. Instead of sending these messages over the phone lines, the disks were exchanged by hand (sneaker mail as it is called) and the children read their partners letters and responded. This correspondence continued for several months. As a culminating activity, a sixth grade teacher, second grade teacher and principal began collaborating on how the students could write and answer "Dear Santa" letters using KidMail. The project was well received by the sixth graders. The second grade students were thrilled that their letters were answered via the computer. Santa has gone hi-tech! The sixth graders expanded their knowledge and expertise of telecommunications through instruction by the principal and sixth grade teacher. A compatible telecomputing program was installed which allowed the students to correspond with a local magnet classroom. An exchange of mail between the schools began. Through the use of telecommunications a group called Kids- 92 was discovered. This listserv group enabled the second graders to locate a fourth grade classroom in Juneau, Alaska who wished to correspond via EMail. This correspondence was conducted as a class project. Group letters, rather than individual messages, were preferred, especially when working with primary children. With the EMail penpals in Juneau, the children compared weather conditions, averaged the growth of daylight as the seasons changed, offered suggestions for a problem with bears on the school playground, measured distances, shared creative writing, compared local grocery store prices, learned of local traditions such as the Iditarod Sled Dog Race, and shared experiences about a field trip to a local rain forest. The children were always anxious to receive a new message and were eager to respond. The benefits of this type of correspondence are limitless. The study of Alaska became real to the students. They actually learned about the people and the land in a meaningful way. The second graders have learned more about Alaska than they ever could from a textbook. They have conversed with real people and have discussed real situations. They have been doing projects with a real purpose and have been very excited about sharing their work with their new friends. Our world is indeed becoming smaller and the students are realizing the benefits from sharing knowledge and ideas with others. Another project has been the exploration of SpaceMet, an FTP site. Exciting lesson plans and activities for a space exploration unit have been found. The class of sixth graders used some of the information when studying about rockets. The sixth grade teacher has been introduced to a wealth of complete lesson plans available to educators. These lesson plans can be utilized at all grade levels. These files have been accessed and downloaded so they maybe presented to the staff for infusion into the science units. A final project involved work with a small group of gifted and talented students. These students were highly motivated and extremely eager to undertake this challenging task. This project involved the use of a telnet site called Cleveland Freenet. (Telnet 126.96.36.199 or 188.8.131.526 or 184.108.40.206) This telnet site offered a plethora of knowledge. The challenge for the students involved being able to make decisions concerning how to locate the desired information. A scavenger hunt activity designed by Sue Anderson, an assistant professor at Texas Christian University. (ag941@Cleveland.freenet.edu) was used. The scavenger hunt was modified to make it appropriate for the interest and abilities of the students. Eight students were divided into two teams. Each team was given five questions and timed to see how long it took to locate the answers. The teams worked on identical questions, but on different days since there was only one dedicated phone line for computers. The students were astounded by the information available. When the time came to return to the classrooms, they begged for time to do more research! One team required thirty-three minutes to locate the answers, while the other team completed the assignment in twenty-five minutes. It was interesting to listen to their reasoning concerning the choice of submenus. The children learned not only facts, but more importantly they learned how to locate answers quickly and efficiently. As we move into the Information Age, the ability to locate, analyze, and use information will be invaluable. The telecomputing activities were truly an experience in probing the future for the students and adults involved. After all, the future is where we will be spending the remainder of our lives! Arlene Haynes AHaynes @odin.unomaha.edu Karen Spellman KSpellman @odin.unomaha.edu A SNIGLET!! A WHAT?? A SNIGLET!! by Nancy Paben Have you ever wondered how a language develops? Well I have and I thought it would be a wonderful project for the students to investigate. Just in talking with my own children, who are now in their teens, I will be snickered at because of some outdated use of our language. They may even ask me to interpret, like I was speaking a foreign language. GEE WHIZ!! There are several different avenues one could take the students down in this venture. Interviews with grandparents, parents, and other teachers could give them a list of words and phrases that have changed meaning and possibly even become extinct. Another avenue would take the students to a large library where they could browse through some really "old" literature to add to the list of "outdated" words and phrases. Yet another group will wander down Report Lane and write on how the English language originated. Did it start at the Tower of Babel? What's its history? The project would come to life if several classes around the country would connect through E-mail. As an interested teacher you could telnet to the Cleveland Freenet. This tel- net site can be accessed from: telnet freenet-in-a.cwru.edu or telnet 220.127.116.11. Once at the Main Menu select the Arts Building. Now that you are in the Arts Building you will choose Literary Arts from the menu. Read about the area and then choose the appropriate Bulletin Board for your age students. (This area may also be accessed under Academy One, Kid-Lit menu.) Exchanging funny phrases and word meanings over the Bulletin Boards would keep the students excited and more than likely entertained. The grand finale will be the SNIGLET PROJECT. These are words that appear to be words but are not found in the dictionary--yet. Examples: an informary - The place where you keep the piles of stuff that you have accumulated while down- loading files off your computer. a snipit - an "R" rated sniglet. How to implement. This will more than likely be a 4 - 6 week project. You will want to make sure that you have enough time to complete it. Recruit at least one other class to collaborate with through telecommunications. Once this is done you need to break up into teams or units each with a different assignment. Team one - - interviews. Team two - - browse through "old" literature. Team three - - brainstorm for ideas on why words change meaning and where new words come from. Team four - - a report on the history of the English Language. At least once a week the classes need to get on line and share some of the interesting items they have discovered and chuckle together. The age of the students will determine the level of telecommunications involvment. Older students would be able to use nationwide library searches in their reports, etc. Once all team assignments have been completed the information would need to be compiled and put into a unified report. The instructors involved could best determine how to do this. This report will be so enlightening that the participants will want to place it in one of the Journal sections back at the Cleveland Freenet. Now for the icing on the cake. Make up your own SNIGLETS. Have each class come up with say ten to twenty sniglets (words that look like words but are not found in the dictionary - - yet!) These will be exchanged with the other participating classes. If the students have a definition in mind do not pass this along, as part of the fun will be to see what the other class thinks the meaning is. My guess is that your meanings for the words will not even come close to what the other students come up with. You will be doing the same with the SNIGLETS you are given. Be sure to end with the TOP 10 list and post them for others to see and "use". Now wait and see if any of these SNIGLETS show up in a dictionary 20 years from now!! ELEMENTAL SEARCHES by Cece Schwennsen Every year I get a new group of chemistry students. At first, these students feel that they have no use for chemistry in their daily lives. They believe that there has been no new information gathered on elements and chemical bonding since before their parents were born. I have tried in the past to have them do a library search on an assigned element. One of the questions I ask them to answer is: What is a common and/or interesting use for your element? Invariably , one generally overachieving student discovers the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. I end up with 92 paragraphs paraphrased from this resource. Not only is that boring to read but it is perpetuating the notion that chemistry is unchanging. What would it be like for them to talk to a chemist? To find research on new findings? To discover the wonders of telecommunication while doing some investigation work? With the help of the computer teacher in the school I plan to provide just that experience. BACKGROUND RTRAININGS Using several resources on the Internet, students will do on-line searches to include but not be limited to following appropriate Newsgroups, telneting to sites where they can obtain information, and emailing contacts I have gained on the Net. Once they have what they consider to be comprehensive information on their assigned element, they will transfer that knowledge to a card or cards in a Hypercard stack. These cards may be rearranged to present the material in any order I like. Before we begin the students will need some background on: 1. How to access the Internet resources. 2. Appropriate *behavior* (students forget that they are talking to professionals). 3. Types of information that should be included. 4. Basics on designing a card. To introduce the students to the Internet we will have a class scavenger hunt. Working in teams, the students will search for information given clues and instructions. (This hunt will include mostly Telnet sites.) This will take a day or two. It should be designed to be short, fun and interesting. THE TASK Once students are familiar with the Internet, they will be assigned an element to research. (Because of the limited number of phone lines, each student will be given a limited amount of time in class to do this.) The sites they will search include: Telnet and FTP sites (access address listed): Archie (archie.unl.edu) (archie.rutgers.edu) (quiche.cs.mcgill.ca) User name: archie Terminal type: vt100 Services (wugate.wustl.edu) (18.104.22.168) Login: services MacSciTech (ra.nrl.navy.mil) (ftp) (22.214.171.124) Login: anonymous Science Education Archives (ftp) (Bio.Indiana.Edu) (126.96.36.199) Login: anonymous Newsgroups (follow postings): K.12 Science Education Chemed-L Science Education K.12sci.chem Email resources (access through email addresses will be given in class): University of Wisconsin University of Ontario SAIS-L BIOPI-L CHEMED-L Chemistry Students are asked to include basic information on the card(s) like: atomic weight, density, reactivity, general characteristics and a brief description. They are also requested to include uses the element has in their daily lives and some information or discovery about their element that has occurred recently. After students have gathered the information, they will create one card in a Hypercard stack. The class will only receive basic training on writing and building a Hypercard stack. (Some students are more knowledgeable about Hypercard than others and may include graphics and interface with our Periodic Table laserdisc. Others may have text only.) The only assessment I will make is whether or not they have worked up to their respective abilities. I will use the stack to present the class information on the periodic table, as the cards can be arranged in numeric order or realigned to demonstrate periodicity with relative ease. OTHER APPLICATIONS Although this is topic specific, many of the same sites can be used for a variety of subjects. With a small amount of modification, the plan can be used for students to research endangered species in my Zoology course. Using the same idea but different sites this would be a way for social studies teachers to keep up with the political and geographic changes in Africa and Europe. (When a card is outdated it can be thrown away and replaced with currentinformation.) Students enjoy interacting with others across the Net and most finished products exceed my expectations. UPDATING INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY by Joan Miller Computer Science, as most of you know, is an exciting, everchanging field of study. One of the most challenging parts of being a computer science teacher is keeping informed of new technological breakthroughs, and in turn, relaying these findings to the students in the classroom. In the past, I have made an attempt to keep students abreast of new knowledge by dedicating part of every other Friday to the sharing of "new technologies." The students were required to bring in an article from a magazine, book or newspaper and report their findings to the class. The class then discussed the technology, and how it may affect them. Next year, I plan to update this part of the Introduction to Computer Science curriculum through the use of a Bulletin Board System, Internet sites, file transferring, newsgroups, a scanner and mail messages. In the following article, I will discuss how I plan to infuse this into a first semester high school computer science classroom. THE HEART OF THE SYSTEM-- THE BULLETIN BOARD The Bulletin Board will contain two sections: a message section and a file section. The message section will be an open forum for discussion among class members about the information they have found. The second section of the Bulletin Board will be used for storage of files. The file portion will contain graphics as well as text files. The text files will include articles that have been found on the Internet, in Newsgroups, FTP sites or scanned in from print. The Bulletin Board will be on twenty-four hours a day. Those students who have access to modems at home will be able to access the board any time they choose. Members of the class who do not own a modem, will complete their work during school time. Although Bulletin Board maintenance can be done by the instructor, I recommend selecting two or three students to oversee these duties. These students will be known as the System Operators or SYSOPS. Training should be given to these students on how to maintain the board. As the semester progresses, these students will be responsible for showing other students how to run the board. By the end of the semester, each student in the class should have had the opportunity to act as the SYSOP of the board for at least one week. SET UP REQUIREMENTS Hardware-- Computer with Hard Drive-- (to run the Bulletin Board) Phone Line(s) Modem(s) Software-- Bulletin Board Shareware Telecommunications Software File Decompression Shareware (Optional) WHAT WILL THE STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW Every student in the class will be given a one week mini course on how to use the Bulletin Board, scanner, newsgroups and selected Internet Sites. The curriculum time invested in this week of instruction, will pay off over the semester, as the students will be using it on a daily basis. As the students' abilities with telecommunications increases, additional Internet and FTP sites can be introduced. Although many Internet sites, FTP sites and newsgroups may contain information about recent technologies in the computer industry, the sites and groups mentioned below are excellent sources of information. Information in newsgroups is the most easily accessible source of information for new telecommuters. At the beginning of the semester, the students will read the postings in the newsgroup of their choice, and write short summaries of their findings. The summaries will be stored in the file section of the BBS. As the semester progresses, additional instruction may be provided to the students on how to download the postings from the newsgroup, and transfer them directly to the BBS. There are hundreds of suitable newsgroups that are available. Below are listed some of the groups I plan to use in my classroom. POSSIBLE NEWSGROUPS acm.forum.macintosh comp.compilers comp.patents comp.robotics comp.research.japan news.software.anu-news The first Internet site I plan to use in the classroom, is the SERVICES site. SERVICES is one of the largest and easiest telnet sites to use. Through SERVICES, nearly one hundred other sites may be accessed through the use of a menu system. Although most of the sites in SERVICES are not strictly computer related, updates in technology may be found through careful searching. After the students are comfortable using the menu system in SERVICES to access other telnet sites, they may begin telneting directly to the sites of their choice. A couple of sites, along with SERVICES, I would recommend are listed below with their Internet address, and a brief discription of what is stored at that location. SITE NAME INTERNET ADDRESS WHAT TO EXPECT ISAAC isaac.engr.washington.edu Provides information about IBM computer technology. MicroMUSE michael.al.mit.edu Provides a 24th century Science Fiction Environment students can communicate in. SERVICES wugate.wustl.edu Provides access to a menu system from which other sites can be accessed. STIS stis.nsf.gov Provides access to National Science Foundation Publications. UNCOVER uncover.carl.org Provides article summaries from 10,000 journals. The third source of online information can come from FTP sites. FTP sites are the most difficult, yet most rewarding sites to use. The downloading and decompression of files can be a confusing process to experienced computer users let alone high school students. I would recommend using FTP sites only after the students have had lots of success with telneting. Below are listed three FTP sites, their addresses, and a short description of the type of information they may contain. SITE NAME INTERNET ADDRESS WHAT TO EXPECT Computers and fftp.eff.org General information Academic Freedom (then: cd pub/academic) about computers Archive Macintosh Software sumex-aim.stanford.edu Macintosh software. (then: cd info-mac) Washington U. Public wuarchive.wustl.edu Collection of freeware Domain Archives and shareware for various computers. PARTING THOUGHTS The destiny of computers in education has not been set. We as educators have a responsibility to provide students with the types of computer experiences that will make them computer literate members of the 21st century. I feel the use of a BBS in a high school classroom is one small step in the right direction. INFUSE YOUR SCHOOL WITH THE CLEVELAND FREENET by Nancy Lyman Library/Media Specialist Platteview Central Junior High Since teachers in my school seemed too busy "winding up the year" with their curriculum but interested in telecommunications, I decided to try and whet the appetites of those who showed interest. Even though they were busy I thought if I started a project for them and let them see it, some would like to try this new method of learning. To start at a very basic level and build up a program is the key to getting people started in telecomputing. If teachers new to this kind of communication wanted to try any of these projects, they would need to acquire an account on a computer that has Internet access. These accounts are most frequently available through a University, a registered educational service center or if they belong to a large school district. Upon acquiring an account, the teachers would type at the prompt Telnet> c freenet-in-a.cwru.edu or try c freenet-in-b.cwru.edu or try c 188.8.131.52 Teachers can enter as a visitor to browse for 1 hour or set up a permanent account by registering. It is strongly suggested that users not register unless they plan to use CFN frequently. NPTN Student News Network The reading department is the most closely linked to the media center in their activities in my school. I work well with the teacher. She is very creative and we share a love of innovative projects. She assists the students in making a school newspaper each quarter and expressed interest in the NPTN Student News Network under Academy One of the Cleveland Freenet. I plan to submit their last paper on the freenet with her permission and see what kind of feedback we get. When we see just exactly what this entails, we can make more definite plans as to how to use this. It will be interesting to show the students when they return over the summer. EMail and KID-LIT The English department is a very friendly and risk-taking group. E-mail would be a very logical place to start. Since it would be more interesting to converse with students from another country, we could establish groups with a Great Britain contact I made over the Freenet thru my own email. This may be exciting to contact another country, but I would have to monitor how long my answers come from him this summer before I would attempt this in the fall. Once comfortable with telecommunications commands, I would have them begin KID-LIT on Academy One of the Cleveland Freenet. The seventh graders produce a booklet of stories, poems and written science experiments, they have done during the first quarter. Classes could decide which stories should be sent or each one could be sent. I plan to try sending a few from this spring's booklet to KID-LIT over the summer so I can show the English teachers what happens in this group when entries are submitted. One of the teachers helped me pick four to send so I know she's interested. Later we could co-write stories with a middle school in Texas I have contacted thru E-mail on the Cleveland Freenet. Scavenger Hunt using CFN The seventh grade math department has been teaching students how to log on to a site using the modem. Using their problem solving skills, I would like to use a modified program of a scavenger hunt on the Cleveland Freenet I searched in my college telecommunications class. I would add some questions so each group of four could have three questions for which to look. At the end they could share their data and devise a new scavenger hunt for the group nextyear. ListServ, WX-TALK and Weather Underground on CFN The science department loves to gather data and do group- drawn graphics. With the way our weather changes in Nebraska, their charts could be very dramatic. They could use information from the listserv, WX-TALK. The address from email at the To: would be LISTSERV@UIUCVMD. I would subscribe to this and could download the information for them to use. We could also use Weather Underground in the Government section of The Cleveland Freenet. They could spend about a week gathering the data before charting their findings. I would teach one of my student library aides, how to download this information in the morning as one of their daily duties. It would be fun as an ongoing project to get seasonal and climatic comparisons from the Great Britain penpals. KIDS-INTERNATIONAL on CFN A language link would be an easy link to incorporate by using KIDS-INTERNATIONAL from Academy One of the Cleveland Freenet. Each quarter, the students do reports on topics such as holidays, foods, sports, favorite places, and other aspects of life. This is the kind of information exchanged in this group. Since I'm not sure of the teachers receptiveness, I would leave this until last so that the interest generated from other classes would draw the teacher. CONCLUSION Even though no single department knows each part of telecomputing, as they discuss their experiences over lunch different ways of using material might be generated. Those with no experience will want to be included in the excitement. The students will talk about what they are doing. All will want to see what new things can be done thru the modem. Currently we only have one phone line connected to a modem and the board office does not support the cost of any more lines. Once this ball of telecommunications gets rolling, we will be able to more than justify the need for the extra lines and modems. BIBLIOGRAPHY "Academy One: A Natinal Online Educational Community," Telecommunications in Education News," II, 2 (Spring, 1991) 9-11. Anderson, S.E. [The Cleveland freenet scavenger hunt]. Unpublished electronic document. 1991. Roberts, N, Blakeskee, G., Brown, M., & Lenk, C."Integrating Telecommunications into education". Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. SCAVENGER HUNT FOR INFUSION PROJECT by Nancy Lyman adapted from Sue Anderson's hunt On-line Scavenger hunt on the Cleveland FreeNet At the YOUR CHOICE ===> give number commands or letter commands. For example, p go back to previous menu h help q leave this menu x exit from CFN Each "hunt" question has one word that is a hint about the answer to the question. The word is *starred* in the sentence. 1. What is the first line of the Koran? (hint: Where can I *find information electronically*?) 2. What is the name of the drummer from the *musical* group "Genesis" and what is he doing today? 3. Give me a rule of puppy training? (hint: What expert will answer your *question*?) 4. How much did Mozart charge for his Requiem? It is a *music* piece and considered in the *art* section. 5. Where would you look for a new law about grandparents in our *government*? 6. What is the name of the virus that causes *Feline* Leukemia? Is it contagious? 7. What is the weather like today on the West Coast, especially Los Angeles? (hint: Check in *government) 8. Where can I get a recipe for Peanut Butter Pie? I want one that will be a culinary *art*. 9. In what year was Christopher Columbus born? How old was he when he died? (hint: He discovered America: the land of the *free*.) (extra clue if needed: Info in the *library*) 10. How many calories in 1 French artichoke? (hint: any mention of *food* makes me hungry) 11. What is the phone number for President George Bush? (hint: he works for the *government*.) 12. What is the name of a test used to diagnose HIV (the viral organism that causes the malfunction of the immune system in *AIDS*)? 13. How long is the Atlantic Ocean coastline? (hint: find a book in the *library*) VERY DIFFICULT!!! 14. What is today's news message on energy prices? (hint: Energy is taught in eighth grade *science*) 15. Name the dangerous flea spray for your pet? (hint: Your *animal clinic* can give you some answers.) 16. What is the cost of addmission to the Museum of *Natural History*? (hint: Lots of neat *science* stuff here) 17. What year did Eric the Red colonize Greenland? (hint: You need some *information* from Academy One) 18. Tell me the first *headline* of yesterday's news? 19. What is the first question seen in space by *NASA*? 20. What is the telephone number for the central office of Alcoholics Anonymous in your area? (hint: This is a *community* service) 21. Would you be considered a solid waste criminal if you threw some away? (hint: You would not be a friend to the *science* environment) 22. What is the remedy if your pet eats antifreeze ? (hint: Question your *veterinarian*) 23. You get to go with dad on his *business trip* to Anaheim CA. There's a place to visit with a famous ship. Name the ship. 24. Will X-raying a recorded *music* video tape affect it? 25. Who made the news as the first american woman to fly in *space*? ====> NUMBER 20 USED AT THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL MAY RAISE ANOTHER QUESTION. ONE SUBHEADING LISTED IN THE QUESTION AREA COULD POSSIBLY BE CHALLENGED IN MY RURAL COMMUNITY. INTERNET ACCESS FOR EDUCATORS: OPTIONS, SOLUTIONS, AND COSTS by Bob Avant and Keith Rutledge OVERVIEW: What is contained in this paper. I. The Internet is briefly described and explained. II. The utility of the Internet for education is described. III. Internet access is explained. IV. A direct high speed connection is proposed to meet access needs. V. A background to methods of connecting to the Internet is given. VI. A step by step process is provided to facilitate a direct connection. VII. System design is discussed and an example is described and illustrated. VIII.Other connection options are mentioned. IX. A cost comparison between Direct Connect and Dial Up is made. X. A summary statement is made for perspective. I. A LAYMAN'S INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNET: The Internet is a world wide network of computers. The entity is not just one central network, but rather a huge loose collection of computer networks that can communicate with each other. The Internet originated with ARPANET a United States government network experiment set up in 1969. The original ARPANET was set up for government and military research. In the late 1970's to the early 1980's several loose networks such as UUCP, USENET, CSNET, and BITNET were established. Originally these networks were not connected to ARPANET, (by now called the Internet) but gateways were soon established for connections. The next big change in the Internet came in 1986, with the establishment of NSFNET, which connected researchers with five super computing centers. Since that time, the Internet has continued to grow from about 213 computers registered on the Internet in 1981 to over 1.5 million today. The present Internet contains over 5,000 networks spanning the entire globe. This extensive worldwide network can be of great utility to educators, and contains many useful resources and services which will be expounded upon in the following section. II. WHAT THE INTERNET MEANS TO EDUCATION, THE EDUCATIONAL VALUE: Access to the Internet can potentially be a great resource for educators. Several states (presently four) have state wide networks which are connected to the Internet. Even if one's own state does not yet have such a network, much can be gained by access to the Internet through a local university. There are many useful assets available to the educator. The first asset that naturally comes to mind is the use of electronic mail or e- mail. One of the authors of this article has begun using this feature with the secondary classes that he teaches. His students have exchanged messages with multiple foreign countries. Basically e- mail allows one to electronically communicate with other computers that have an Internet electronic address. Whenever an individual or institution obtains an Internet account, an Internet address is assigned to that account. Lesson plans, collaborative projects, interest surveys, and other teaching ideas can be exchanged between the two sites. One of the true advantages of e-mail is that the service usually involves a local phone call and there are no long distance charges, no matter where the message is sent. The Internet has another resource for the educator which are called telnet sites. Telnet sites are computers which are online mechanisms for researching various topics. For example, an educator could link up to online encyclopedias or data bases for class projects. Many library catalogs (including the Library of Congress) are linked to the Internet as telnet sites. Students can also telnet to various sites to get current weather information, earthquake reports, or even current daily information from NASA on ongoing space shuttle missions. Listserv's and Newsgroups are two very useful informational tools for the educator. A Listserv is the electronic equivalent of a magazine subscription and discussion group, it is usually part of the BITNET network but is easily accessible from the Internet. There are over 2,000 Listserv's available for subscription, with topics ranging from bee keeping to deaf education. Newsgroups are usually part of the USENET network. They are the electronic equal of a daily newspaper, but usually are devoted to one specific topic. Both of the previously mentioned resources have the potential to be of great classroom utility as students and teachers can select a specific resource applicable to a specific topic being researched. Another very useful Internet resource available to educators are FTP sites. FTP stands for file transfer protocol. FTP sites are electronic depositories of free programs, shareware, articles, and graphics that can easily be downloaded and transferred to the local classroom computer. For example, one of the writers of this article has had his students download programs demonstrating fractal geometry, articles on music, and images from NASA voyager missions. These students then used these downloads for reports and research in their other classes. III. HOW DOES A SCHOOL GAIN INTERNET ACCESS: Computers are linked together over a distance usually through the use of modems and telephone lines. Modems are pieces of equipment that convert a computer's digital signal into an analog signal which can be then transmitted over an ordinary telephone line. Another modem will in turn reconvert the analog signal back into a digital signal which the receiving computer can then use. Most educational Internet connections are through local universities and colleges. All that is needed is a computer, telecommunications software, a modem, a phone line, and an Internet node or gateway at the local institute of higher learning that can be dialed. A few states have statewide networks which allow educators to interact with the Internet. One such network (with which the authors are participating, and thus the example used in this article) is TENET, sponsored by the Texas Education Agency. As of Spring 1993, 21,000 educators across the state are registered to use this resource. Most schools and educators use local telephone lines which allow them to connect to TENET nodes (a local university), which in turn give them Internet access. Most of the hookups are via individual telephone lines and individual modems. Individual teachers dial the modem pool number at the local institute of higher learning and gain access if a local line is free. Four sites in the state presently have direct hookups which is a second way of Internet access. A direct line is a more economical alternative for Internet access, and is thus the topic of this paper. IV. WHAT ARE THE NEEDS AND WHY A DIRECT HOOKUP: A direct hookup to the Internet is a good use of educational funding for both an individual school or a school district. A single high speed line connects a local area network (LAN) at a school to the Internet gateway at the local college or university. Such a connection would not be economical for individual use. This solution would best be utilized when a school desires for multiple computers to have access simultaneously to the Internet. For example, if a high school wants to have several computer labs simultaneously logged on to the Internet, the most cost effective linkage would be through one direct line, versus one modem and phone line per computer. In the case with TENET, a direct line would ease the strain on local dial in modem pools. Presently, with so many educators using the service, teachers have to wait for a free line to connect to the Internet. At times the wait can be quite significant. V. CONSIDERATIONS IN CONNECTIONS "Informatics, Information Age, Telecommunications, Infoglut, Networking, Global Classroom, Bytes, Bits, and Baud." These are but a few common words in a world which in some eyes may seem like an entire sub-culture; the world called the Internet. The Internet is an electronic network of networks of networks and extends to most parts of the globe. Communication on this system is handled nearly instantaneously and by some estimates, there are around six million people who access the resources found on the Internet daily. Cost is dependent upon the method of connection to the system and to what degree the keeper of the access point wishes to charge to recoup their costs or even make a profit. Fortunately, there are many access points with more on the way. Hopefully, this growing system will bring down the costs of the hardware and other costs associated with connecting to the network. The issue for this portion of the paper is connectivity. How can a school district or individual campus gain access to the Internet? What are the steps to take in order to obtain a Direct Connect? What are some possibilities to designing a system to connect? And finally, how much does it cost? For the purposes of the paper, it is assumed that you already have established the worth and value of a connection to the Internet. Actually, that is half the battle, for if you have convinced the "powers that be" that this possibility is worth whatever it takes, then you will get whatever you want. You have to do a sales job first. Probably the most difficult thing to do is to describe to the uninitiated what it means to be on the Internet. It is very difficult to quantify the information available. It is suggested to look at finding practical infusion ideas and examples to present to those that control the budget. For now, we'll leave this important step as it is not the focus of the paper. Quality access is the key. Quality is interpreted to mean speed of data transmission and system reliability. Access may be described as ease of use and availability. These are the issues that this paper relates to the most. Connection Alternatives A. Dial Up Option Probably the most common method to connect to the Internet is through a dial up modem pool. That is, your computer's modem calls a host system's collection of modems. Once a link has occurred, your computer has access to what the remote system allows you access to- -including their connection to the Internet. There are several pros and cons to this method. Pros: 1. For an individual, this is perhaps the simplest, least complicated, and least expensive way to connect. You can purchase a modem for anywhere between $65 to $300 or more, plug an existing telephone line to it and with communications software, gain access to the outside world. One point to remember is that if you are tying up the phone line, then no one else can use it. If the phone line happens to have an extension, then that extension must not be picked up during the modem usage time. If it does get picked up, then your modem connection will most likely be severely disrupted. Some people have a special phone line installed which is then considered to be "dedicated" to the modem use. Having a dedicated line can increase access. 2. Having a connection like this means that there is minimal maintenance of the connection. There is just not much on your side that can go wrong. On the other side, the host that you are connecting to must maintain all of their hardware, software, and other facilities. Typically, depending on the size and complexity of the system, there is a staff hired specifically to manage this task. You can let them worry about all the technical stuff. Cons: 1. The speed of the data transfer is dependent upon your modem and the modem pool that you are connecting to. The slowest participating modem speed determines the data transmission speed. 2. The quality of the phone lines is a factor. "Noisy" lines can confuse modems and create unwanted characters on the screen. 3. Typically, you are in competition with others for a fixed number of connection points. In other words, the modem pool size usually is fixed at a small number while the possible number of users is larger and growing. This is a major negative factor for access. 4. You use one modem and one phone line for every connection established. This can become expensive when many people wish to be connected in a location such as a school. The expense is that there are monthly phone bills for each line. B. Direct Connection This is currently the best alternative if your concern is of quality access. What is a Direct Connect? The Internet can be compared to a road system. There are various types of roads that you can drive on. Some are electronic superhighways (which speak in a format called TCP/IP) and some are back roads (which speak in digital and analog formats). The Internet has a "backbone" of superhighway data routes. Surprisingly, there are not that many of them. This backbone can transmit data at the fastest rates available. There are many lesser highway systems that connect to these data routes. At the ends of these are large networks such as TENET, FIRN, institutions of higher education, and others. In reality, these networks are the only ones that are directly connected to the Internet (backbone). >From these networks come lesser roads of data communications. Some of these are merely pass through points directly to the Internet and others are closed systems which then can connect to the Internet. Typically, dial up modem pools belong to these closed networks. The important point is that the further away from the backbone that you get, the less speed and reliability there exists. The goal then is to establish your access point as close the the backbone level as possible while keeping your connection costs balanced with the value of the connection. To actually establish a true Direct Connect is generally not feasible because the access points are limited and distant. (Distance is a factor in determining cost of the use of the lines). There are two options: 1) establish access to a system that can connect to the Internet, and 2) establish access to a system that is directly connected in such a way as to have the same benefits of their access level. The first option has already been discussed as the Dial Up Option. The second option is what will be referred to from this point on as a Direct Connect (even though it is really a secondary direct connection in that you are getting "directly" to the Internet through a host). There are several pros and cons to establishing a Direct Connect. Pros: 1. Guaranteed and immediate access to the Internet (unless the host has a rare mechanical failure in which case no one has access). 2. Extremely fast data transfer rates. 3. Many users may have simultaneous yet independent sessions on the same connection line. Cons: 1. The initial cost of the hardware may be a factor. The dollar amount could range from about $7000 to much higher depending on your needs and existing network situation. 2. There is a monthly phone bill for the special line that must be installed. The charges for this line (called a 56kb line) may be around $200 per month. 3. As owners of the hardware, you must develop knowledge and skills in installation, troubleshooting, and maintenance. It takes time to do these things. The process of gaining and maintaining a Direct Connect is not one for the novice or uninformed. This paper should only serve as an introduction to the process and should be followed up with much investigation and knowledge building before going ahead with implementation. VI. THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING A DIRECT CONNECT TO THE INTERNET: First of all, you will need assistance in this process. You will need the help of someone or some people that can guide you as you begin and as you need technical assistance. The host organization that you are connecting to should be your best choice for this invaluable assistance. Get to know them and establish a great (not just good) relationship. You will be calling upon them often. Step one: Determine the access point and the owner of the connection link to the Internet. As mentioned earlier, you will not be actually connecting directly to the Internet, rather you will be gaining access through a host network who can provide a connection. Remember that your goal should be to be as close to the backbone level as possible. Otherwise, the more links in the chain, the more possibility of hardware failures affecting your access. A good place to start in locating a connection point is your local university or college. Most of these institutions are connected to the Internet and they will probably become your access point anyway. Also, check with your state Education Agency. They may have some information for you as to options. Step two: Get permission from your soon to be host to connect to the Internet through them. This request should be done in writing and include the details of your system such as the hardware that will be utilized (if known), the type of phone line to be used, and specifically what site that your system would tie into the host system (remember, distance is an issue). Step three: You should next apply for an Internet Protocol (IP) address for your site. This will give you a Class C network number and a block of 254 unique addresses for your network. The application comes by mail from the DDN Network Information Center, 14200 Park Meadow Dr.-Suite 200, Chantilly, VA, 22021, or by electronic mail at HOSTMASTER@NIC.DDN.MIL . You can contact them with questions at (800) 365-3642. Once submitted, you will receive confirmation within 8 working days by e-mail (if you submitted your application in that way) or in about a month through US Mail. Step four: Determine specifically your network design and hardware needs. Because you are connecting your system to a host, you need to make sure that your equipment is compatible with their system. They may even tell you what equipment you must use. Talk to them. When everything is settled upon, order the hardware for your system. Step five: Determine and order the communications software that your system PC's will use. The software must be TCP/IP capable. In addition, there may be other protocols and features that are needed or desired. Ask your host for a recommendation. Keep in mind that there are shareware/freeware versions that you can obtain via ftp. There are also very powerful commercial products available. Some of these software solutions will be described later in this paper. Step six: Install your phone line. Contact your local phone company to do this. Remember that as soon as it is installed, you will be charged for its existence. Therefore, try to time things so that this is the last ingredient to your system to obtain. Step seven: After everything is in place, you will have to have the hardware and software configured for use. Hopefully, your host personnel can help you with this installation. There may or may not be a fee associated. If there is, pay it. It's worth it. Designate a person on your staff to look over their shoulder and learn all that they can. This way, you can begin to develop some in house expertise. VII. SYSTEM DESIGN Every Direct Connect network system is unique. There are many variables in a network design such as building size, length of cabling for the network, and the type of computers are involved-Mac, MS-DOS, other, or mixed. Another consideration is what type of networking will be involved. There are three main types, Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI (fiber optics). These are the networking types that your Direct Connect hardware can usually work with. It is best (because it is cheaper) to stick with one format. There are also some platform specific networking types that if present, must play a role in your plan (such as LocalTalk, etc). Other variables include remote buildings that need to be included on the network, numbers of users, anticipated networking traffic, and on and on. With all of the variables, there are a few constants. 1) You will need to have a router and a DSU/CSU which is connected to a 56kb (or better) phone line. 2) You have to have a network of computers so that they can take advantage of the Direct Connect. Once again, the suggestion is lots of consultation with your host friends. Also, check with the major computer and telecommunication hardware vendors that you deal with and tap their expertise. But beware, you probably will find as many suggested designs as people that you talk to. So take in all the information that you can and come to your decisions based on that input and the knowledge that is unique to your situation. A System Design Case Study: The Education Service Center, Region XIII, Austin, Texas This site is one of twenty such sites in Texas and works to improve resources and leadership to its clients of nearly 65 school districts. In order to improve training capabilities, in-house access, client access, and to model a solution, it was determined to obtain a direct connection to the Internet. The discussions and planning began in October of 1992 and the system was operational in April of 1993. The building was already networked with wiring that would accept ethernet RJ45 plugs. Most of the users are on Macintoshes while the others are MS-DOS based. The existing network system protocol was Apple LocalTalk. We followed the steps outlined previously fairly closely although some steps happened concurrently. It was determined that a Cisco Router (model 4000) was the best choice given all our unique considerations. This router could be configured to connect to any of the three major types of networking types. We chose ethernet thinnet. In order not to lose the benefits of the existing network, we found a device that would connect a LocalTalk network to an ethernet network. There were several brands available but we chose the Compatible Systems RISC 3000 model. This box could connect two LocalTalk networks to two ethernet networks. We also discovered that we had to have two special cables in order to connect all the machines. Additional expense was incurred as we chose to create an ethernet connected Lab. That expense included the cost of the ethernet cards (one per machine) and the cabling . In order to take advantage of this new direct connection, special software is needed. Each machine must be TCP/IP capable and must have a communications software package installed that meets the needs of the network that you are connecting with. In our case, we needed a package that included TCP/IP, telnet, ftp (x, y, and z file transfers) and Kermit protocol. There are several solutions being looked into at the time of this writing. Macintosh Software Solution #1: This first combination of titles is attractive because they are free. There are two titles: first, a connection package called NCSA Telnet. This enables a connection to any available site via telnet. This package supports telnet and TCP/IP. (By the way, you must purchase a copy of TCP/IP controlling software for each machine used with NCSA Telnet. This cost works out to be around $15-20 per machine.) Although you can ftp with NCSA, it lacks an easy ftp interface. The solution to this shortcoming is a very effective and versatile ftp package called Fetch. With Fetch, you make a two way connection between your computer and the remote site. The interface is very user friendly yet powerful. You have the option of setting the transfer mode to text, binary, or automatic. The automatic setting takes the guesswork out of determining which filetype to set for those mysterious file suffixes. In addition, there is a post-processing feature that can be set to automatically decompress any compressed transferred file and launch the file with its appropriate application. Once again, this program is attractive not only for its power and simplicity, but because it is freeware. The other shortcoming of using the NCSA software is that it does not support online printing due to the type of protocol that our host remote network is built upon. Macintosh Software Solution #2: There are several (even numerous) commercial packages which meet most or all of the criteria mentioned earlier. One package being evaluated currently is called VersaTerm. This package contains all the features of the Software Solution #1 plus it is easy to print from within the application. An educational institutional price will be at a substantial discount from the retail price. Check with the company for current pricing. The end result is that we have an effective solution for demonstrating and experiencing the benefits of a Direct Connect to the Internet. Training and utilization is underway. (The following diagram was created using Courier, 10 point) ............... .................Control Room.................... . . . +++++++++++++++++++ . . COMPUTER . -------------------|---------::::+ CISCO 4000 + . . LAB . / . | + ROUTER + . . . / . | + + . . ETHERNET----/ . ,,,,|,,,,,,,, + + . . . . , RISC 3000 , +++++++++][++++++++ . ............... . ,,,,,,,,,,,,, ][ . . @ ][ . . @ ____][____ . . @ | | . . -------------- | DSU/CSU **** . . | LocalTalk | |__________| * . . | Network | * . . -------------- * . . * . . * . ..............................................*.. * * * UT Connection :::::::::::::::::::KEY TO DIAGRAM:::::::::::::::::: :: :: :: ---- and | thinnet ethernet cable :: :: :::: Transceiver cable (AUI->thinnet):: :: ][ v.35 Transition Cable :: :: @ AppleTalk cable :: :: **** 56kb phone line :: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: VIII. Other Connection Options This section will be very short because the purpose is only to make mention of some areas to look into for your possible consideration. Option A -- You have a central office and several campuses. Do you need to install all of the above equipment at each site in order to establish a direct connect? Maybe, but maybe not. You have several things to consider. One, are the buildings close enough to run a cable between them to connect the networks? If so, then that would be the best alternative. Be sure to understand the limitations of distance in networking. Two, there are hardware solutions to consider which can link remote networks. Three, you could set up a dial up modem pool at the site of the router for your designated set of users. In this case, you would need a Terminal Server and enough modems and incoming lines to address your needs. Option B -- Packet Radio uses a licensed Ham Radio station/operator to make a wireless connection to the Internet. Speeds are generally slow, around 2400 baud to 9600 baud, but there are no ongoing fees and no phone lines involved. Option C -- Your local cable company may have some ideas on connectivity through what is called the INET. Option D -- There are grant monies available for telecommunications projects. Check with your State Educational Agency. Also, contact your local phone company. Sometimes they will support innovative projects. IX. THE BOTTOM LINE: A BALLPARK FIGURE COST COMPARISON This section will attempt to compare the costs of a direct connect for an entire campus with the cost of connecting just five classrooms on five computers with five separate phone lines in a dial up scenario. DIRECT CONNECT DIAL UP ******************************** ******************************** HARDWARE HARDWARE Router $6000 5 Modems @150 $750 DSU/CSU 750 5 Phone lines 200 (monthly) 1 56kb line 200 (monthly) Networking expense est.=$ 2500 SOFTWARE Communication software (free+) Communication software (free+) BENEFITS and VALUE *Every* computer on the network The five modems and lines can have instant, sustained, and compete for a connection separate access to the Internet. to the limited number of Enhanced access to the Internet available incoming ports through tools such as Fetch (file at the host system. Access retrieval package), gopher therefore, is not guaranteed (information searching tool), and may be limited by daily and more. Greatly enhanced login time limits. Only the downloading and file transfer resources of the host system speeds. Quality access is are available. File transfers maintained. are as much as 25 times slower. Quality access is not maintained. ------------------------ TWO YEAR COST COMPARISON Five Users (Direct Connect) @ $14,000 (Dial Up) @ $5,550 Thirty Users (Direct Connect) @ $14,000 (Dial Up) @ $33,300 ------------------------- FIVE YEAR COST COMPARISON Five Users (Direct Connect) @ $21,250 (Dial Up) @ $12,750 Thirty Users (Direct Connect) @ $21,250 (Dial Up) @ $76,500 ------------------------ X. SUMMARY: It is hoped that this paper has been a starting point for you as you begin your quest for greater quality access to information for your students and staff. The Information Age is a fact of society that will be waiting for our graduates whether they are prepared or not. Connecting to the Internet is a beginning. Good Luck. * * * * * * * APPENDIX 1 Contact information for products mentioned CISCO SYSTEMS P.O. Box 3075 1525 O'Brien Dr. Menlo Park, CA 94026 COMPATIBLE SYSTEMS, CORP. 4730 Walnut, Suite 102 P.O. Box 17220 Boulder, CO 80308 (303) 444-9532 NCSA SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 152 Computing Applications Bldg. 605 E. Springfield Ave. Champaign, IL 61820 email@example.com (Fetch) DARTMOUTH COLLEGE 6028 Kiewit Computation Center Hanover, NH 03755-3523 Fetch@dartmouth.edu (VersaTerm) SYNERGY SOFTWARE (PCS,Inc.) 2457 Perkiomen Ave. Reading, PA 19606 (215)779-0522 ========================================== ARTICLE AUTHORS: Bob Avant firstname.lastname@example.org Keith Rutledge email@example.com ========================================== CD-ROM and the INTERNET by Nancy Reppert (firstname.lastname@example.org) "CD-ROM is a new storage medium that can serve as a quick, economical source of information for students, researchers, writers, and professionals in many fields" (Schamber, 1988). Though, no longer "new", CD-ROM technology is a valuable resource tool for educators and continual improvements and developments being realized will provide even more educational materials for use in the classroom. Educators will want to keep abreast of the newest CD-ROM developments, which they can do very easily through the use of computer telecomputing technology. Description of CD-ROMs, their application in the classroom, and steps on how educators can find CD-ROM information utilizing Internet resources will be covered in this report. CD-ROM stands for Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. CD- ROMs are similar to floppy disks in that they are approximately the same size, they store information in digital form, and they are used with a personal computer. However, information contained on a floppy disk is stored in the form of magnetic charges, while CD-ROM information is encoded by laser onto optical disks in the form of microscopic pits. This laser data encoding process allows CD-ROMs to carry much more information than a floppy disk (Schamber, 1988). A CD physically has a single spiral track about three miles long and spins at about 500 RPM when reading near the center, down to about 250 RPM when reading near the circumference (Poggio, 1988). CD-ROMs durability, high storage capacity and low cost make them very appealing to the educator. CD-ROM's are not only resistant to scratches and other handling damage, but users are not able to write on, change, or erase information contained on the disc, thus providing the K-12 teachers some safeguards against potential misuse by students. Any information expressed in digital form -- be it text, images, graphics or sound -- can be stored on a CD-ROM (Poggio, 1988). Because of CD-ROMs immense storage capacity, industry has made CD- ROM the standard for storing and distributing massive amounts of information, games and educational programs (Miller, 1992). The storage capacity of the CD-ROMs currently on the market range from about 540 to 660 megabytes. According to Schamber (1990) a 660 megabyte capacity CD-ROM contains the equivalent of 330,000 typewritten pages. With ever increasing technological advances, increased utilization and improvement of compression techniques, disc storage capacity will certainly continue to increase. CD-ROMs are a very useful resource tool and can be used for remedial instruction, for classroom learning enrichment, and as presentation tools to enhance student and faculty reports and projects. Some of the programs and subjects presently available on CD-ROM formats include Birds of North America, Shakespeare on Disc, Mammals of North America, Webster's Dictionary, Exotic Japan and Beethoven: The Ninth Symphony (MacUser, 1991). Utilizing the Beethoven CD-ROM, one can read about the conductor, explore the structure of the symphony, and see and hear the symphony. Networked encyclopedias available on CD-ROM allow students to easily access examples of how words are used in different contexts (Becker, p. 8). In addition to CD-ROM discs which enhance student learning are CD-ROM databases and bibliographic information for educators and librarians. The ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database which many librarians, information centers, educators and students now access through the Internet is now available on CD-ROM. The entire ERIC database, with its 25 years of citations and indexes, fits on two compact disks, with quarterly updates available by subscription (Schamber, 1990). This allows users to leisurely peruse and access information directly, free from any on-line telecomputing costs or line-noise problems. However, you will want to utilize the Internet to access ERIC information and other sources of information on CD- ROMs because it is easy, rewarding and will provide yoku with a wealth of information. There are many routes to travel on the Internet to find information, let's start with ERIC. My account which is on the TENET (Texas Education Network) system provides me with an AskERIC Special Information Services menu. The main menu has a list of services. I type: 8 (Special Information Services) then type: 3 (The AskERIC Service) then type: 2 (AskERIC a Question) The system then reveals the Pine electronic mail program with the AskERIC address already provided on the "TO:" line. All I have to do is type a search question about CD-ROMs in the message body. "AskERIC staff will respond with an answer within 48 working hours" (Tkachuck, 1993). If your system does not provide this special information service from the menu, you can still "AskERIC" simply by sending an Internet E-mail message to email@example.com. AskERIC does not review individual CD-ROM products but can provide the location of articles and perform searches on CD-ROMs applications and uses. There is a way you can find out about CD-ROM products however. Again, access the Special Information Services from the main menu -- Type: 8 Type: 2 (WAIS -- Wide Area Information Search and Retrieval) Type: 5 (TESS listing) The system will ask you what keywords you would like TESS to search. Type: CD-ROM By performing a TESS search under the WAIS Services that the Internet Resources provides my search resulted in 40 CD-ROM program listings, ranging from "The CIA World Factbook," to "Heather Hits Her First Home Run." When you access your desired title, you are provided a plethora of information about the CD-ROM, including a description of the program, who sells it and how much it cost, the applicable classroom subjects which could incorporate the CD-ROM disc, its uses in the classroom, what grade level, and supplier information. Another telecomputing tool to find CD-ROM information on the Internet is using the Online Library Catalog listed under #3 Internet Resources from the main menu. Type: 3 (Internet Resources) Type: 3 (Online Library Catalogs) A list of seven different University libraries extending from the University of Hawaii to Sam Houston State University come up on the screen. Select the number next to your desired library. The libraries each have their own methods for obtaining information, so the user needs to respond to the prompts from their particular library. To reach the UT Library archives, one need only type UTCAT at the prompt. Conduct a subject search by typing in "s CD-ROM". From my search I received a list of 27 CD-ROM related files ranging from juvenile literature available on CD-ROM to CD-ROM handbooks. Type the number corresponding to the topic file you wish to access. Within each file is a listing of all resources located in that file. To obtain further information on the file, type the number next to the listing you want which gives a detailed display including title, when published, description of the listing (such as book, videocassette, speech, etc.) and notes which briefly describe what is included in the listing. So far we have performed rather easy searches utilizing intrastate resources. Let's explore what type of CD-ROM information we can glean out of state. For instance, let's go get Poggio's interesting article on CD-ROMs. To access this document can perform an FTP. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and it allows the Internet user to visit various server sites around the world, searching, and transferring information from the foreign site to one's own computer. Most FTP sites allow anonymous login rights to Internet users to access their public archives. Thus, an educator can get gigabytes of information for free without even requiring a login name (Krol, p. 60). The Poggio article is located at the address ftp.apple.com. To FTP to this site perform the following steps: At the system prompt, type: ftp ftp.apple.com. At the login prompt, type: anonymous At the password prompt, type in your e-mail address. Once in the site, type, "dir" at the prompt. This will provide you with a menu of directories and subdirectories available at that site. Included in this list is the subdirectory entitled <cd-rom>. This subdirectory is available for public use. At the prompt, type: cd pub This will provide you with a menu of what is contained in the <pub> subdirectory. You will find another subdirectory entitled <cd-rom>. At the system prompt, type: cd cd-rom The cd-rom.summary file, which you see listed on your screen, is Poggio's article. The system tells you the date of the article and how large the file is. To see the file, type: get cd-rom.summary |more The full text will appear on your screen. To transfer the file to your telecomputing account, type: get cd-rom.summary. The file will be automatically transferred to your account, which you can then download to your computer, to print. To exit the FTP site, type: Bye The system will respond with a goodbye message. Now, what if you didn't know that this CD-ROM article was at this FTP site? Well, you could perform an Archie search to find locations of servers around the world who have information on CD-ROMs. To conduct an Archie search, follow these steps. At the system prompt, type: telnet archie.unl.edu At the login prompt, type: archie Archie is a very popular means for Internetters to get information and is heavily used. There may be too many users accessing Archie when you attempt to log in. If there is, the system will advise you to try again later. At the keyword prompt, type: CD-ROM During my Archie search for CD-ROM information I received a list of 20 different host sites around the world which had articles containing information on CD- ROMs. Archie provides the user with the site's address, the specific location of the file within the site (i.e., under what subdirectories), how large the file is, and the date and name of the article. Although my Archie search resulted in a list of servers located in Japan, the United Kingdom, the U.S., Germany, Switzerland and Sweden, I needn't be a polyglot to read the articles from these countries, because the articles accessed are in English. Many of the same CD-ROM articles are located at different sites, so it is up to the user to decide to which site they want to FTP. However, the closer the proximity of the site to your location, the better and less demanding on the Internet system. In fact, when FTPing to a server site in Hannover, Germany, the system requested that users located in the U.S. please use a server located nearer to them. However, I must admit, it is fun and exceptionally easy to explore sites around the world and FTPing to the site is very swift once you type in the foreign server address. Each server has its own personality -- some are congenial, others are more business-like. For example, a server in Switzerland has a little welcome note and a London-based server provides the user with the local time. Japan and Sweden servers connect you to their files with little fanfare. Some sites issue a warning stating that all actions you perform at their site are monitored. The Swiss warn the user this way: "Everything you do is logged so be nice ;-)" What wonderful netiquette! Just like gophering and other types of Internetting functions, use may be limited. When FTPing to London, England one is told what user number they are out of a maximum usage rate (e.g., 31, out of a maximum of 40). Another means of finding information on CD-ROMs is to "gopher" to a site. "The Internet Gopher allows you to browse for resources using menus (Krol, p. 190). Gopher provides many menus and options, so you will want to explore on your own. Below, is a sample gophering episode to find CD-ROM information. At the system prompt, type: gopher A menu appears offering many options for searching. Select #8 -- Other Gopher and Information Servers Select #11 - WAIS Based Information Select #3 -- Everything (It is wise to keep your options open.) When I performed my search 16 pages of various server topics came up after some time. One can either scroll down using the arrow key or type in the number corresponding to your required option. For this sample, type: 25 (ERIC -archive. src) The screen will ask you what Index word(s) you wish to search for. Type: CD-ROM This database in not case sensitive so typing "cd-rom" will result in the same article listings. My search brought up 26 CD-ROM related titles. Again, either scroll down or type in the number corresponding to your desired file. It takes the system just a few seconds to retrieve a file. Once you have accessed the file, you have four command options: exiting, mailing, saving or printing the article. You will see the "mail" "save" and "print" options located at the bottom of the screen after you type "q" to quit the article. To save the article type "s". You will be prompted to name the file where you want the article saved. When saving subsequent articles the system will prompt you to "Enter save file name:" and will include the name of the file previously created. Be careful, because if you don't change the name the new article will REPLACE the stored article in that file. Articles can not be amended to existing files, as they can using some other programs. After you have saved articles in your account you can then download them to your personal computer, edit and print them. If you access an article and want to get back to the list of articles menu, after typing "q" to quit, press, Enter. One interesting aspect of CD-ROM technology is its applicability to Internet use. "Many types of references that previously were available only in books or through electronic search devices are now available on diskette. Owning a diskette version of this type of material gives quick access to the information at any time... " (Gottlieb, 1989). CD-ROM use is a tremendous boon for heavy Internet users whose access to Internet resources may be limited due to cost considerations, operation malfunctions. In addition, educators can employ many of the same search methods they use on the Internet without worries of log-in restrictions problems due to access restrictions when the maximum number of users on the system has already been reached. One can even purchase CD-ROMs which store Internet newsgroup postings and information. "Now, with NetNews/CD, the wealth of information available via USENET is archived and readily available when you need it, not just when it arrives" Landfield (1992). As CD- ROM popularity continues to grow, many other newsgroups will surely save their articles and postings on such a medium. Subscribers to LISTSERVs will no longer have to download desired information to their hard drives or a floppy disk, thus saving time and reducing the aggravation which sometimes occurs when one can not transfer files due to the limited storage capacity of ones computer. As Becker (1991) so nicely puts it, "CD- ROM promises to end that dependency on whatever you can squeeze onto a diskette". As you can see, the applications for CD-ROM usage is vast and by utilizing Internet resources, one can readily learn more about their potential uses. Internet users can even use telecomputing techniques to access CD-ROM information on how to use telecomputing commands. For example, the Prime Time Freeware (PTF) has produced a CD-ROM of UNIX-related source codes (Morin 1992). Telecomputing using the resources of the Internet for educational purposes is becoming ever more popular. "CD-ROM encyclopedias are demonstrating useful and powerful tools for learning right now. If teachers can find the time to develop learning activities and assignments that exploit their power, and if schools can implement the software in student accessible networks, we will see an "order of magnitude" change in the value of instructional computer software for school based learning." (Becker, 1991, p. 20). On-line access to CD-ROM may become "one of the more important technologies to provide distance learners with access to reference and research materials" (Brey, 1989). Naturally, in order to utilize all of the wonderful educational tools CD-ROMs provide you will need the proper equipment including a CD-ROM Drive. There are almost as many options in buying a CD-ROM drive as there are CD-ROMs to play. For example, you can purchase a multisession capability drive which when coupled with Kodak's Photo CD technology, allows the user to store as many as 100 digital photographs on a CD-ROM. You may want to buy dual-speed disc drives which rotate at twice the speed of conventional CD-ROM drives. Maybe you want to make a faculty presentation using CD-ROM technology or want your entire class to hear a Bach concerto in a music appreciation class. Then, you'll want to be sure to purchase a CD-ROM drive with RCA preamp jacks which let you hook up a pair of external speakers. For conferencing using CD-ROM technology, drives that allow you to use more than one disc at a time are available, such as the CD-ROM jukeboxes which can swap as many as six discs into and out of a single drive mechanism (Von Biel). Just as you used Internet resources to find information on CD-ROM technology, you can do the same to find out all about CD-ROM drives! You be the driver! It's fast, it's fun and it's educational! ;-). Nancy Reppert firstname.lastname@example.org References Becker, H.J. (1991, February). Encyclopedias on CD-ROM: Two Orders of Magnitude More Than Any Other Educational Software Has Ever Delivered Before. Educational Technology, pp. 7-20. Brey, R. (1990). Telecourse Utilization Survey Project -- Third-Year Report: Fall 1986-Summer 1989, Austin Community College, p. 61. Gottlieb, S. (1989). Using Personal Computers to Acquire Special Education Information. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED314914). Krol, E. (1992). The Whole Internet, User's Guide & Catalog. O'Reilly & Associates, Inc. Landfield, K. (1992, February). RE: News available on CD-ROM [Electronic mail message]. Florida SunFlash, 38 (18). MacUser (1991, December). 7 (12), pp. 63, 64. Miller, Michael (1992, March 31). Multimedia. PC Magazine, pp. 112-120. Morin, Rich (1992, January). RE: Sources on CD-ROM [Electronic mail message]. Florida SunFlash, (38) 6. Poggio, Andy (1988, March). From Plastic Pits to Fantasia. CD-ROM Technical Summary [ftp.apple.com pub/cd-rom/cd-rom.summary]. Schamber, Linda (1990, December). ERIC on CD-ROM. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED330372). Schamber, Linda (1988, May). The Novice User and CD-ROM Database Service. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED300032). Tkachuck, R. (1993, May). RE: AskERIC Services provided for Educators [Electronic mail message]. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, Syracuse, New York. Von Biel, V. (1993, June). How to Buy CD-ROM Drives. MacUser (p. 100).